Illumining phase transformation dynamics of vanadium oxide cathode by multimodal techniques under operando conditions
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Subtle structural changes during electrochemical processes often relate to the degradation of electrode materials. Characterizing the minute-variations in complementary aspects such as crystal structure, chemical bonds, and electron/ion conductivity will give an in-depth understanding on the reaction mechanism of electrode materials, as well as revealing pathways for optimization. Here, vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), a typical cathode material suffering from severe capacity decay during cycling, is characterized by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ Raman spectroscopy combined with electrochemical tests. The phase transitions of V2O5 within the 0–1 Li/V ratio are characterized in detail. The V–O and V–V distances became more extended and shrank compared to the original ones after charge/discharge process, respectively. Combined with electrochemical tests, these variations are vital to the crystal structure cracking, which is linked with capacity fading. This work demonstrates that chemical bond changes between the transition metal and oxygen upon cycling serve as the origin of the capacity fading.
Keywordsin-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) in-situ Raman electrochemical process phase transformation
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51425204, 51832004, 51872218, 51521001, 21805219, and 51302203), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFA0202603), the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (No. B17034), the Yellow Crane Talent (Science & Technology) Program of Wuhan City, the project of innovative group for low cost and long cycle life Na-ion batteries R&D and Industrialization of Guangdong Province (No. 2014ZT05N013) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WUT: 2017-YB-005, 2017IVA100, 2017IVA096, 2017III040). The μ-XRF beam time is granted by 4W1B endstation of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The staff members of 4W1B are acknowledged for their support in measurements and data reduction. Dr. Yunlong Zhao thanks Advanced Technology Institute at University of Surrey and the UK National Measurement System. Guobin Zhang and Prof. Liqiang Mai thank Prof. Yan Zhao for the discussion.
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