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Critical size limit of biodegradable nanoparticles for enhanced lymph node trafficking and paracortex penetration

  • Gregory P. Howard
  • Garima Verma
  • Xiyu Ke
  • Winter M. Thayer
  • Timothy Hamerly
  • Victoria K. Baxter
  • John E. Lee
  • Rhoel R. DinglasanEmail author
  • Hai-Quan MaoEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Lymph node (LN) targeting through interstitial drainage of nanoparticles (NPs) is an attractive strategy to stimulate a potent immune response, as LNs are the primary site for lymphocyte priming by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and triggering of an adaptive immune response. NP size has been shown to influence the efficiency of LN-targeting and retention after subcutaneous injection. For clinical translation, biodegradable NPs are preferred as carrier for vaccine delivery. However, the selective “size gate” for effective LN-drainage, particularly the kinetics of LN trafficking, is less well defined. This is partly due to the challenge in generating size-controlled NPs from biodegradable polymers in the sub-100-nm range. Here, we report the preparation of three sets of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)-b-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) NPs with number average diameters of 20-, 40-, and 100-nm and narrow size distributions using flash nanoprecipitation. Using NPs labeled with a near-infrared dye, we showed that 20-nm NPs drain rapidly across proximal and distal LNs following subcutaneous inoculation in mice and are retained in LNs more effectively than NPs with a number average diameter of 40-nm. The drainage of 100-nm NPs was negligible. Furthermore, the 20-nm NPs showed the highest degree of penetration around the paracortex region and had enhanced access to dendritic cells in the LNs. Together, these data confirmed that small, size-controlled PLGA-b-PEG NPs at the lower threshold of about 30-nm are most effective for LN trafficking, retention, and APC uptake after s.c. administration. This report could inform the design of LN-targeted NP carrier for the delivery of therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines.

Keywords

biodegradable nanoparticle lymph node trafficking vaccine delivery nanoparticle size antigen presenting cells in vivo imaging 

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by support from the National Institutes of Health (Nos. R01-AI114609 and T32-OD11089) and NSF GRFP (No. DGE1746891). Partial support was received from the University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute.

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Critical size limit of biodegradable nanoparticles for enhanced lymph node trafficking and paracortex penetration

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory P. Howard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Garima Verma
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xiyu Ke
    • 2
    • 5
  • Winter M. Thayer
    • 6
  • Timothy Hamerly
    • 4
  • Victoria K. Baxter
    • 3
    • 7
  • John E. Lee
    • 8
  • Rhoel R. Dinglasan
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Hai-Quan Mao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Institute for NanoBioTechnologyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, and the Malaria Research InstituteJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Whiting School of EngineeringJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.Johns Hopkins School of NursingBaltimoreUSA
  7. 7.Department of Molecular and Comparative PathobiologyJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  8. 8.Department of Biomedical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  9. 9.Translational Tissue Engineering CenterJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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