Morphology and property investigation of primary particulate matter particles from different sources
Particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a major environmental concern in many developing countries. PM pollution control remains a great challenge owing to the complex sources and evolution processes of PM particles. There are two categories of PM, i.e., primary and secondary PM particles, and the primary PM emissions play a key role in the formation of PM pollution. Knowledge of primary PM particle compositions, sources, and evolution processes is of great importance to the effective control of PM pollution. In order to characterize PM particles effectively, their fundamental properties including the morphology, concentration distribution, surface chemistry, and composition must be systematically investigated. In this study, we collected and analyzed six types of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from different sources using an in situ sampling approach. The concentration distributions of PM particles were analyzed and comparative analysis of the morphologies, distributions, capture mechanisms, and compositions of PM particles was conducted using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We found that there were significant differences in the structures, morphologies, and capture mechanisms of PM2.5 and PM10 particles. The systematic comparative investigation in this work will benefit the study of evolution processes and the effective control of PM pollution in the future.
Keywordsparticulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) source analysis nanofiber filtration property distribution characterization
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank Dr. Yuanqing Li for fruitful discussions.
- Wu, S. W.; Deng, F. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Huang, J.; Wang, X.; Hao, Y.; Zheng, C. J.; Qin, Y.; Lv, H. B.; Shima, M. et al. Association of cardiopulmonary health effects with sourceappointed ambient fine particulate in Beijing, China: A combined analysis from the healthy volunteer natural relocation (HVNR) study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 3438–3448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brook, R. D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Pope III, C. A.; Brook, J. R.; Bhatnagar, A.; Diez-Roux, A. V.; Holguin, F.; Hong, Y. L.; Luepker, R. V.; Mittleman, M. A. et al. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2010, 121, 2331–2378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Timonen, K. L.; Vanninen, E.; De Hartog, J.; Ibald-Mulli, A.; Brunekreef, B.; Gold, D. R.; Heinrich, J.; Hoek, G.; Lanki, T.; Peters, A. et al. Effects of ultrafine and fine particulate and gaseous air pollution on cardiac autonomic control in subjects with coronary artery disease: The ULTRA study. J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 2006, 16, 332–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Limbeck, A.; Kulmala, M.; Puxbaum, H. Secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere via heterogeneous reaction of gaseous isoprene on acidic particles. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2003, 30, DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017738.Google Scholar
- Li, W. J.; Shao, L. Y.; Zhang, D. Z.; Ro, C. U.; Hu, M.; Bi, X. H.; Geng, H.; Matsuki, A.; Niu, H. Y.; Chen, J. M. A review of single aerosol particle studies in the atmosphere of East Asia: Morphology, mixing state, source, and heterogeneous reactions. J. Cleaner Prod. 2015, 112, 1330–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar