Deriving phosphorus atomic chains from few-layer black phosphorus
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Phosphorus atomic chains, the narrowest nanostructures of black phosphorus (BP), are highly relevant to the in-depth development of BP-based one-dimensional (1D) nano-electronics components. In this study, we report a top-down route for the preparation of phosphorus atomic chains via electron beam sculpturing inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The growth and dynamics (i.e., rupture and edge migration) of 1D phosphorus chains are experimentally captured for the first time. Furthermore, the dynamic behavior and associated energetics of the as-formed phosphorus chains are further investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is hoped that these 1D BP structures will serve as a novel platform and inspire further exploration of the versatile properties of BP.
Keywordsblack phosphorus one-dimensional atomic chain density functional theory
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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472215, 51222202, 91433103, 11274380, 11622437, 61674171, 11227403 and 11534010), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB932500 and 2015CB21004), the 111 project (No. B16042) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 16XNLQ01). J. S. Q. was supported by the Outstanding Innovative Talents Cultivation Funded Programs 2016 of Renmin University of China. This work made use of the resources of the Center of Electron Microscopy of Zhejiang University. Calculations were performed at the Physics Laboratory for High-Performance Computing of Renmin University of China and at the Shanghai Supercomputer Center. We thank Prof. Ray F. Egerton for fruitful discussions and Dr. Qiang Xu for his assistance on in situ heating.
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