Flexible highly-effective energy harvester via crystallographic and computational control of nanointerfacial morphotropic piezoelectric thin film
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Controlling the properties of piezoelectric thin films is a key aspect for designing highly efficient flexible electromechanical devices. In this study, the crystallographic phenomena of PbZr1–x Ti x O3 (PZT) thin films caused by distinguished interfacial effects are deeply investigated by overlooking views, including not only an experimental demonstration but also ab initio modeling. The polymorphic phase balance and crystallinity, as well as the crystal orientation of PZT thin films at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), can be stably modulated using interfacial crystal structures. Here, interactions with MgO stabilize the PZT crystallographic system well and induce the texturing influences, while the PZT film remains quasi-stable on a conventional Al2O3 wafer. On the basis of this fundamental understanding, a high-output flexible energy harvester is developed using the controlled-PZT system, which shows significantly higher performance than the unmodified PZT generator. The voltage, current, and power densities are improved by 556%, 503%, and 822%, respectively, in comparison with the previous flexional single-crystalline piezoelectric device. Finally, the improved flexible generator is applied to harvest tiny vibrational energy from a real traffic system, and it is used to operate a commercial electronic unit. These results clearly indicate that atomic-scale designs can produce significant impacts on macroscopic applications.
Keywordsenergy harvesting morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) piezoelectric first-principles calculation lead zirconium titanate (PZT)
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The authors would like to thank the CEO of RoboPrint Co., Jung Gyu Park. This study was backed up by the research project–Product Development of Wearable Self-Powered Energy Device and Integrated Self-Powered Energy Device from PEPS (No. G01150219). This research was supported by Nano·Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) (No. 2016M3A7B4910636). This is also supported by Global Frontier R&D Program on Center for Integrated Smart Sensors (No. CISS-2016M3A6A6929958) funded by MSIP through NRF of Korea government. This work was additionally supported by Basic Science Research Program through the NRF of Korea funded by MSIP (No. 2016R1A2B4010674).
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