Advertisement

Nano Research

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 980–989 | Cite as

Tunnel junctions in a III–V nanowire by surface engineering

  • Salman Nadar
  • Chloé Rolland
  • Jean-François Lampin
  • Xavier Wallart
  • Philippe Caroff
  • Renaud Leturcq
Research Article

Abstract

We demonstrate a simple way of fabricating high performance tunnel devices from p-doped InAs nanowires by tailoring the n-doped surface accumulation layer inherent to InAs surfaces. By using appropriate ammonium sulfide based surface passivation before metallization without any further thermal treatment, we demonstrate characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions, namely Esaki and backward diodes, with figures of merit better than previously published for InAs homojunctions. The further optimization of both the surface doping, in a quantitative way, and the device geometry allows us to demonstrate that these nanowire-based technologically-simple diodes have promising direct current characteristics for integrated high frequency detection or generation.

Keywords

semiconductor nanowire tunnel junction indium arsenide compounds doping III-V semiconductors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

12274_2014_579_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 1.41 MB.

References

  1. [1]
    Ionescu, A. M.; Riel, H. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches. Nature 2011, 479, 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Burrus, C. A. Gallium arsenide Esaki diodes for high-frequency applications. J. Appl. Phys. 1961, 32, 1031–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Cowley, A. M.; Sorensen, H. O. Quantitative comparison of solid-state microwave detectors. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 1966, 14, 588–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Anand, Y.; Moroney, W. J. Microwave mixer and detector diodes. Proc. IEEE 1971, 59, 1182–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kleinknecht, H. P. Indium arsenide tunnel diodes. Solid-State Electronics 1961, 2, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Hopkins, J. B. Microwave backward diodes in InAs. Solid-State Electronics 1970, 13, 697–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Biefeld, R. M. The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and properties of III–V antimony-based semiconductor materials. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 2002, 36, 105–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Aardvark, A.; Mason, N. J.; Walker, P. J. The growth of antimonides by MOVPE. Prog. Crystal Growth Charact. 1997, 35, 207–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Tomioka, K.; Motohisa, J.; Hara, S.; Fukui, T. Control of InAs nanowire growth directions on Si. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 3475–3480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Dayeh, S. A.; Chen, P.; Jing, Y.; Yu, E. T.; Lau, S. S.; Wang, D. Integration of vertical InAs nanowire arrays on insulator-on-silicon for electrical isolation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 93, 203109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Hertenberger, S.; Rudolph, D.; Bichler, M.; Finley, J. J.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G. Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy. J. Appl. Phys. 2010, 108, 114316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Shin, J. C.; Kim, K. H.; Yu, K. J.; Hu, H. F.; Yin, L. J.; Ning, C. Z.; Rogers, J. A.; Zuo, J. M.; Li, X. L. InxGa1–xAs nanowires on silicon: One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics. Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 4831–4838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Björk, M. T.; Schmid, H.; Breslin, C. M.; Gignac, L.; Riel, H. InAs nanowire growth on oxide-masked 〈111〉 silicon. J. Cryst. Growth 2012, 344, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Pan, D.; Fu, M. Q.; Yu, X. Z.; Wang, X. L.; Zhu, L. J.; Nie, S. H.; Wang, S. L.; Chen, Q.; Xiong, P.; von Molnár, S.et al. Controlled synthesis of phase-pure InAs nanowires on Si(111) by diminishing the diameter to 10 nm. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 1214–1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Nadj-Perge, S.; Frolov, S. M.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P. Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire. Nature 2010, 468, 1084–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Johansson, S.; Memisevic, E.; Wernersson, L. E.; Lind, E. High-frequency gate-all-around vertical InAs nanowire MOSFETs on Si substrates. IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 2014, 35, 518–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Björk, M. T.; Schmid, H.; Bessire, C. D.; Moselund, K. E.; Ghoneim, H.; Karg, S.; Lörtscher, E.; Riel, H. Si-InAs heterojunction Esaki tunnel diodes with high current densities. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2010, 97, 163501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Bessire, C. D.; Björk, M. T.; Schmid, H.; Schenk, A.; Reuter, K. B.; Riel, H. Trap-assisted tunneling in Si-InAs nanowire heterojunction tunnel diodes. Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 4195–4199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Riel, H.; Moselund, K. E.; Bessire, C.; Bjork, M. T.; Schenk, A.; Ghoneim, H.; Schmid, H. InAs-Si heterojunction nanowire tunnel diodes and tunnel FETs. In IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), San Francisco, USA, 2012, pp 16.6.1–16.6.4.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Fung, W. Y.; Chen, L.; Lu, W. Esaki tunnel diodes based on vertical Si-Ge nanowire heterojunctions. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2011, 99, 092108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Schmid, H.; Bessire, C.; Björk, M. T.; Schenk, A.; Riel, H. Silicon nanowire Esaki diodes. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 699–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Wallentin, J.; Persson, J. M.; Wagner, J. B.; Samuelson, L.; Deppert, K.; Borgström, M. T. High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 974–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Ganjipour, B.; Dey, A. W.; Borg, B. M.; Ek, M.; Pistol, M. E.; Dick, K. A.; Wernersson, L. E.; Thelander, C. High current density Esaki tunnel diodes based on GaSb-InAsSb heterostructure nanowires. Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 4222–4226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Borg, B. M.; Ek, M.; Ganjipour, B.; Dey, A. W.; Dick, K. A.; Wernersson, L. E.; Thelander, C. Influence of doping on the electronic transport in GaSb/InAs(Sb) nanowire tunnel devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 043508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Dey, A. W.; Svensson, J.; Ek, M.; Lind, E.; Thelander, C.; Wernersson, L. E. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: Radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 5919–5924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Mead, C. A.; Spitzer, W. G. Fermi level position at semiconductor surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1963, 10, 471–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Kawaji, S.; Gatos, H. C. Electric field effect on the magnetoresistance of indium arsenide surfaces in high magnetic fields. Surf. Sci. 1967, 7, 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Hang, Q. L.; Wang, F. D.; Buhro, W. E.; Janes, D. B. Ambipolar conduction in transistors using solution grown InAs nanowires with Cd doping. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 062108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Li, H. Y.; Wunnicke, O.; Borgström, M. T.; Immink, W. G. G.; van Weert, M. H. M.; Verheijen, M. A.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M. Remote p-doping of InAs nanowires. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 1144–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Ford, A. C.; Chuang, S.; Ho, J. C.; Chueh, Y. L.; Fan, Z. Y.; Javey, A. Patterned p-doping of InAs nanowires by gas-phase surface diffusion of Zn. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 509–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Sørensen, B. S.; Aagesen, M.; Sørensen, C. B.; Lindelof, P. E.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J. Ambipolar transistor behavior in p-doped InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 92, 012119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Upadhyay, S.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J. Low temperature transport in p-doped InAs nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 103, 162104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Shu, H. B.; Chen, X. S.; Ding, Z. L.; Dong, R. B.; Lu, W. First-principles study of the doping of InAs nanowires: Role of surface dangling bonds. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 14449–14454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    dos Santos, C. L.; Schmidt, T. M.; Piquini, P. On the p-type character of Cd-and Zn-doped InAs nanowires. Nanotechnology 2011, 22, 265203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Olsson, L. Ö.; Andersson, C. B. M.; Håkansson, M. C.; Kanski, J.; Ilver, L.; Karlsson, U. O. Charge accumulation at InAs surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1996, 76, 3626–3629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Noguchi, M.; Hirakawa, K.; Ikoma, T. Intrinsic electron accumulation layers on reconstructed clean InAs(100) surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1991, 66, 2243–2246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Jiang, X. C.; Xiong, Q. H.; Nam, S.; Qian, F.; Li, Y.; Lieber, C. M. InAs/InP radial nanowire heterostructures as high electron mobility devices. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 3214–3218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Dayeh, S. A.; Yu, E. T.; Wang, D. L. Transport coefficients of InAs nanowires as a function of diameter. Small 2009, 5, 77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Sze, S. M.; Ng, K. K. Physics of Semiconductor Devices; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 2007.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Ho, J. C.; Ford, A. C.; Chueh, Y. L.; Leu, P. W.; Ergen, O.; Takei, K.; Smith, G.; Majhi, P.; Bennett, J.; Javey, A. Nanoscale doping of InAs via sulfur monolayers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009, 95, 072108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Takei, K.; Kapadia, R.; Li, Y. J; Plis, E.; Krishna, S.; Javey, A. Surface charge transfer doping of III-Vnanostructures. J. Phys. Chem. C 2013, 117, 17845–17849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Magnusson, M. H.; Deppert, K.; Malm, J. O.; Bovin, J. O.; Samuelson, L. Size-selected gold nanoparticles by aerosol technology. Nanostruct. Mater. 1999, 12, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Rolland, C.; Caroff, P.; Coinon, C.; Wallart, X.; Leturcq, R. Inhomogeneous Si-doping of gold-seeded InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 102, 223105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Oigawa, H.; Fan, J. F.; Nannichi, Y.; Sugahara, H.; Oshima, M. Universal passivation effect of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface of III–V compound semiconductors. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1991, 30, L322–L325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Suyatin, D. B.; Thelander, C.; Björk, M. T.; Maximov, I.; Samuelson, L. Sulfur passivation for ohmic contact formation to InAs nanowires. Nanotechnology 2007, 18, 105307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Esaki, L. New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions. Phys. Rev. 1958, 109, 603–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Petrovykh, D. Y.; Yang, M. J.; Whitman, L. J. Chemical and electronic properties of sulfur-passivated InAs surfaces. Surf. Sci. 2003, 523, 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Burrus, C. A. Backward diodes for low-level millimeter-wave detection. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 1963, 11, 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Snider, G. Program for the resolution of the 1D Poisson-Schrödinger equation [Online]. http://www.nd.edu/~gsnider (accessed July 3 2014).
  50. [50]
    Guter, W.; Bett, A. W. I–V characterization of tunnel diodes and multijunction solar cells. IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev. 2006, 53, 2216–2222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Neave, J. H.; Dobson, P. J.; Joyce, B. A.; Zhang, J. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction oscillations from vicinal surfaces-a new approach to surface diffusion measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1985, 47, 100–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Thelander, C.; Caroff, P.; Plissard, S.; Dey, A. W.; Dick, K. A. Effects of crystal phase mixing on the electrical properties of InAs nanowires. Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 2424–2429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salman Nadar
    • 1
  • Chloé Rolland
    • 1
  • Jean-François Lampin
    • 1
  • Xavier Wallart
    • 1
  • Philippe Caroff
    • 1
    • 2
  • Renaud Leturcq
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.ISEN DepartmentInstitute of Electronics Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS-UMR 8520Villeneuve d’Ascq CedexFrance
  2. 2.Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and EngineeringThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.Département Science et Analyse des MatériauxCentre de Recherche Public-Gabriel LippmannBelvauxLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations