Nano Research

, Volume 7, Issue 6, pp 917–928 | Cite as

Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a fiber/ZnO nanowires/paper hybrid structure for energy harvesting

  • Qingliang Liao
  • Zheng Zhang
  • Xiaohui Zhang
  • Markus Mohr
  • Yue Zhang
  • Hans-Jörg Fecht
Research Article


We present a novel, low-cost approach to fabricate flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) consisting of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on carbon fibers and foldable Au-coated ZnO NWs on paper. By using such designed structure of the NGs, the radial ZnO NWs on a cylindrical fiber can be utilized fully and the electrical output of the NG is improved. The electrical output behavior of the NGs can be optionally controlled by increasing the fiber number, adjusting the strain rate and connection modes. For the single-fiber based NGs, the output voltage is 17 mV and the current density is about 0.09 μA·cm−2, and the electrical output is enhanced greatly compared to that of previous similar micro-fiber based NGs. Compared with the single-fiber based NGs, the output current of the multi-fiber based NGs made of 200 carbon fibers increased 100-fold. An output voltage of 18 mV and current of 35 nA are generated from the multi-fiber based NGs. The electrical energy generated by the NGs is enough to power a practical device. The developed novel NGs can be used for smart textile structures, wearable and self-powered nanodevices.


ZnO nanowires hybrid structure flexible nanogenerators piezotronic 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingliang Liao
    • 1
  • Zheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiaohui Zhang
    • 1
  • Markus Mohr
    • 2
  • Yue Zhang
    • 1
  • Hans-Jörg Fecht
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and MaterialsUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Micro and NanomaterialsUlm UniversityUlmGermany

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