Nano Research

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 113–120 | Cite as

Multiplexed cytokine detection on plasmonic gold substrates with enhanced near-infrared fluorescence

  • Bo Zhang
  • Jordan Price
  • Guosong Hong
  • Scott M. Tabakman
  • Hailiang Wang
  • Justin A. Jarrell
  • Ju Feng
  • Paul J. Utz
  • Hongjie DaiEmail author
Research Article


Protein microarrays based on fluorescence detection have been widely utilized for high-throughput functional proteomic analysis. However, a drawback of such assays has been low sensitivity and narrow dynamic range, limiting their capabilities, especially for detecting low abundance biological molecules such as cytokines in human samples. Here, we present fluorescence-enhancing microarrays on plasmonic gold films for multiplexed cytokine detection with up to three orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than on conventional nitrocellulose and glass substrates. Cytokine detection on the gold plasmonic substrate is about one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and can be multiplexed. A panel of six cytokines (Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), Interleukin 4 (IL-4), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interferon γ (IFN-γ), and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)) were detected in the culture media of cancer cells. This work establishes a new method of high throughput multiplexed cytokine detection with higher sensitivity and dynamic range than ELISA.

Graphical abstract


microarray cytokine plasmonic multiplex near infrared fluorescence 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Zhang
    • 1
  • Jordan Price
    • 2
  • Guosong Hong
    • 1
  • Scott M. Tabakman
    • 1
  • Hailiang Wang
    • 1
  • Justin A. Jarrell
    • 2
  • Ju Feng
    • 1
  • Paul J. Utz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hongjie Dai
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and RheumatologyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and InfectionStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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