Nano Research

, Volume 5, Issue 7, pp 504–511 | Cite as

A facile tool for the characterization of two-dimensional materials grown by chemical vapor deposition

  • Mario Hofmann
  • Yong Cheol Shin
  • Ya-Ping Hsieh
  • Mildred S. Dresselhaus
  • Jing KongEmail author
Research Article


The metrology of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is critical for the optimization of their synthesis. We demonstrate the use of film-induced frustrated etching (FIFE) as a facile, scalable method to reveal and quantify structural defects in continuous thin sheets. The sensitivity of the analysis technique to intentionally induced lattice defects in graphene compares favorably to the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy. A strong correlation between the measured defectiveness and the maximum carrier mobility in graphene emphasizes the importance of the technique for growth optimization. Due to its ease and widespread availability, we anticipate that FIFE will find wide application in the characterization of CVD-synthesized 2D materials.


Two-dimensional materials graphene analysis chemical vapor deposition Address 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Hofmann
    • 1
  • Yong Cheol Shin
    • 2
  • Ya-Ping Hsieh
    • 3
  • Mildred S. Dresselhaus
    • 4
  • Jing Kong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Opto-MechatronicsChung-Cheng UniversityChiayiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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