Nano Research

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 297–307 | Cite as

Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser

  • Qiaoliang Bao
  • Han Zhang
  • Zhenhua Ni
  • Yu Wang
  • Lakshminarayana Polavarapu
  • Zexiang Shen
  • Qing-Hua Xu
  • Dingyuan TangEmail author
  • Kian Ping LohEmail author
Open Access
Research Article


We demonstrate that the intrinsic properties of monolayer graphene allow it to act as a more effective saturable absorber for mode-locking fiber lasers when compared to multilayer graphene. The absorption of monolayer graphene can be saturated at lower excitation intensity compared to multilayer graphene, graphene with wrinkle-like defects, or functionalized graphene. Monolayer graphene has a remarkably large modulation depth of 65.9%, whereas the modulation depth of multilayer graphene is greatly reduced due to nonsaturable absorption and scattering loss. Picosecond ultrafast laser pulses (1.23 ps) can be generated using monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber. Due to the ultrafast relaxation time, larger modulation depth and lower scattering loss of monolayer graphene, it performs better than multilayer graphene in terms of pulse shaping ability, pulse stability, and output energy.


Graphene saturable absorber laser carrier dynamics ultrafast photonics 

Supplementary material

12274_2010_82_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (365 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 363 KB.


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiaoliang Bao
    • 1
  • Han Zhang
    • 2
  • Zhenhua Ni
    • 3
  • Yu Wang
    • 1
  • Lakshminarayana Polavarapu
    • 1
  • Zexiang Shen
    • 3
  • Qing-Hua Xu
    • 1
  • Dingyuan Tang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kian Ping Loh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Physical and Mathematical SciencesNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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