Nano Research

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 159–163 | Cite as

Valence band splitting in wurtzite InP nanowires observed by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy

  • Gerben L. Tuin
  • Magnus T. Borgström
  • Johanna Trägårdh
  • Martin Ek
  • L. Reine Wallenberg
  • Lars Samuelson
  • Mats-Erik Pistol
Open Access
Research Article

Abstract

We have investigated individual bulk-like wires of wurtzite InP using photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Using two different methods we find that the top of the valence band is split, as expected theoretically. This splitting of the valence band is peculiar to wurtzite InP and does not occur in zinc blende InP. We find the energy difference between the two bands to be 40 meV.

Keywords

wurtzite InP photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy valence band structure 

References

  1. [1]
    Mattila, M.; Hakkarainen, T.; Mulot, M; Lipsanen, H. Crystal-structure-dependent photoluminescence from InP nanowires. Nanotech 2006, 17, 1580–1583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Mishra, A.; Titova, L. V.; Hoang, T. B.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Yarrison-Rice, J. M.; Kim, Y.; Joyce, H. J.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. Polarization and temperature dependence of photoluminescence from zincblende and wurtzite InP nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91, 263104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bao, J. M.; Bell, D. C.; Capasso, F.; Wagner, J. B.; Mårtensson, T.; Trägårdh, J.; Samuelson, L. Optical properties of rotationally twinned InP nanowire heterostructures. Nano Lett 2008, 8, 836–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Algra, R.; Verheijen, M. A.; Borgström, M. T.; Feiner, L. F.; Immink, G.; van Enckevort, W. J. P.; Vlieg, E.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M. Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. Nature 2008, 456, 369–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.; Pemasiri, K.; Montazeri, M.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Yarrison-Rice, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Zou, J. The effect of V/III ratio and catalyst particle size on the crystal structure and optical properties of InP nanowires. Nanotech 2009, 20, 225606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Pemasiri, K.; Montazeri, M.; Gass, R.; Smith, L. M.; Jackson, H. E.; Yarrison-Rice, J.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.; Zhang, X.; Zou, J. Carrier Dynamics and Quantum Confinement in type II ZB-WZ InP Nanowire Homostructures. Nano Lett 2009, 9, 648–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Caroff, P.; Dick, K. A.; Johansson, J.; Messing, M. E.; Deppert, K.; Samuelson, L. Nature Nanotech 2009, 4, 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Glas, F.; Harmand, J. C.; Patriarche, G. Why does wurtzite form in nanowires of III–V zinc blende semiconductors? Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 99, 146101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Sibirev, N. V. Growth thermodynamics of nanowires and its application to polytypism of zinc blende III–V nanowires. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 77, 035414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Yamashita, T.; Sano, K.; Akiyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Ito, T. Theoretical investigations on the formation of wurtzite segments in group III–V semiconductor nanowires. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2008, 254, 7668–7671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    De, A.; Pryor, C. E. Predicted band structures of III–V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase. Phys. Rev. 2010, B81, 155210.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Perera, S.; Pemasiri, K.; Fickenscher, M. A.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L; Yarrison-Rice, M. J.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. Probing valence band structure in wurtzite InP nanowires using excitation spectroscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2010, 97, 023106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Magnusson, M. H.; Deppert, K.; Malm, J. O.; Bovin, J. O.; Samuelson, L. Size-selected gold nanoparticles by aerosol technology. Nanostructured Materials 1999, 12, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Ghandhi, S. K.; Parat, K. K. Shallow N+ diffusion into InP by an open-tube diffusion technique. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1987, 50, 209–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bugajski, M.; Lewandowski, W. Concentration-dependent absorption and photoluminescence of n-type InP. J. Appl. Phys. 1985, 57, 521–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerben L. Tuin
    • 1
  • Magnus T. Borgström
    • 1
  • Johanna Trägårdh
    • 1
  • Martin Ek
    • 2
  • L. Reine Wallenberg
    • 2
  • Lars Samuelson
    • 1
  • Mats-Erik Pistol
    • 1
  1. 1.Solid State Physics/Nanometer Structure ConsortiumLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Polymer & Materials Chemistry/nCHREMLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations