Numerical investigation on thermophoretic deposition of particles in turbulent duct flow with conjugate heat transfer: Analysis of influencing factors

  • Hao Lu
  • Li-zhi ZhangEmail author
  • Rong-rong Cai
Research Article


Thermophoretic deposition of particles in turbulent duct flow is of significant relevance in energy and thermal engineering applications. However, conjugate heat transfer (CHT) was commonly not considered in the previous studies, but may have crucial influences on particle deposition behaviors. Therefore, thermophoretic particle deposition in turbulent duct flow with and without CHT was numerically investigated by using \(\overline {v{\prime ^{_2}}} - f\) turbulence model and discrete particle model (DPM) with a modified discrete random walk method. After grid independence study and numerical verification, several important influencing factors on particle deposition velocity were studied, such as flow Reynolds number, temperature difference between inlet hot air and cool wall, thermal conductivity ratio and width ratio of solid and fluid domain. The thermophoresis greatly increases deposition velocity of small particles but has no influence on large particles. The critical particle relaxation time \(\tau _{\rm{p}}^ + \) for thermophoresis effect is 20, which is the same for all the cases in this study. The corresponding particle diameter is 28 µm. The thermophoretic deposition is enhanced when the flow Reynolds number and temperature difference between air and wall increase. This is because the wall-normal temperature variety is higher for large Reynolds number and temperature difference, which can enhance thermophoretic deposition. However, CHT reduces the thermophoretic deposition by decreasing temperature difference in fluid region. Besides, higher thermal conductivity ratio and width ratio of solid and fluid domain will decrease the thermophoretic deposition, as thermal conduction in solid domain becomes more intense.


particle deposition conjugate heat transfer influencing factors 

List of symbols


area of particle deposition


thickness of solid wall


Cunningham correction factor


mean particle concentration


drag coefficient of particle


specific pressure heat of solid wall


diameter of dust particle


an elliptic equation for the relaxation function


fanning friction factor


gravitational acceleration


width of half duct


particle deposition number


turbulent kinetic energy


Saffman’s lift force coefficient


number of dust deposited on the walls


total particle number


Reynolds number


particle Reynolds number


deformation tensor


ratio of particle-to-fluid density


spectral intensity of a Gaussian white noise random process


volumetric heat source in solid domain


time period of dust deposition


temperature of solid domain


ttemperature of fluid domain


mean velocity of air


freestream velocity of air


velocity of fluid


velocity of particle


frictional velocity of air


wall-normal fluctuating velocity of air

\(\overline {v{\prime ^{_2}}}\)

wall-normal stress of flow


volume of duct flow


particle deposition velocity

\(V_{\rm{d}}^ + \)

dimensionless particle deposition velocity


density of fluid


density of particle


density of solid wall


normal distributed random number


kinetic viscosity of air


particle relaxation time


time step


thermal conductivity of solid domain


thermal conductivity of fluid domain

\(\tau _{\rm{p}}^ + \)

dimensionless particle relaxation time


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The authors appreciate the financial supports provided by the National Key Research and Development Program (No. 2017YFE0116100), the “Xinghua Scholar Talents Plan” of South China University of Technology (D6191420) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (D2191930). It is also supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 51425601) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province: Guangdong-Hong Kong Technology Cooperation Funding Scheme (TCFS), No. 2017B050506005.


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina

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