Building Simulation

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 203–217 | Cite as

A comparison study of Taiwanese He-Yuan Architecture between the ethically spatial order and the condition of physical environment

  • Yin-Hao ChiuEmail author
  • Neng-Weng Huang
  • Chih-Chia Wang
Research Article Architecture and Human Behavior


Since the 21st century, problems such as global warming and energy depletion have become important issues to scientists and architects. The architectural design nowadays often relies on large amount of mechanical equipment to create a comfortable environment for the users. However, it burdens and deteriorates the nature. On the other hand, some of the traditional architecture in the past can cope with the local humid and hot climate, achieving good passive heat control for the environment. Therefore, this study explores the relation between traditional residents in Taiwan’s use of space and the external environment and climate through modern environment measurement technique, restores and conducts quantitative analysis on the interior thermal environment and light environment of Lin-An-Tai Historical House in the past through Ecotect Analysis, and analyzes the results of the calculation in terms of its spatial allocation, openings, and outer walls, etc. This study also evaluates the effects of lighting and user’s sense of comfortable temperature under its environmental conditions according to the standards of residential quality nowadays. It further studies the ancestor of traditional architecture by reviewing its spatial order and compares to the current situation in order to feedback the modern architecture design. Part of the results of the simulation show that the variation of temperature indoors in each space is less dynamic than that of outdoors. The temperature in the space at the right of the main hall (northwestern side) is generally higher than that in the left (southeastern side). The highest temperature in the space farther away from the interior patio is usually higher than that in the space closer to the interior patio. The temperature near the outer side of the space above Hulong is higher than that in the middle. Accordingly, the location is closely related to the interior temperature. As to human’s sense of comfortable temperature, the results show that in summer, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) in the space at the left of the main hall (southeastern side) is generally higher than that in the right (northwestern side). In winter, the sense of comfortable temperature in the rooms in the corner is lower than that in other rooms at the inner side, the comparison between the space ethical order and the evaluation result did not show any obvious relationship. For the evaluation of lighting, the main hall and the restaurant at the outer left Hulong have better lighting while other space does not have sufficient and even lighting. Artificial lighting is needed to make the space more functional, the results shows that lighting conditions of space did not metaphor to the space ethical order.


courtyard house He-Yuan Architecture quadrangle domestics architecture computational simulation thermal environment light environment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This study is a part of the research outcome of the project “An investigation into the reuse of different space types by the application of performance oriented parameter design” (MOST104-2410-H-845-024), which was funded by “the Ministry of Science and Technology”. We thank the Ministry for funding this project.


  1. Baran M, Yıldırım M, Yılmaz A (2011). Evaluation of ecological design strategies in traditional houses in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19: 609–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen HS, Li CW (2003). Natural ventilation and shielding approaches of southern Fukien style building: A study of quadrangle residential architectures. Architectural Institute of Taiwan Fifteenth Symposium of Research, E8-1-E8-4.Google Scholar
  3. Chen JX (1987). Thermal performance of traditional residential architectures in Taiwan. Master Thesis, National Cheng Kung University.Google Scholar
  4. Chou DC (1999). Architecture Building Physics. Taipei: Chan’s Archpublishing.Google Scholar
  5. Dili AS, Naseer MA, Zacharia Varghese T (2011). Passive control methods for a comfortable indoor environment: Comparative investigation of traditional and modern architecture of Kerala in summer. Energy and Buildings, 43: 653–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hong WY (1985). Investigating climate adaptability of traditional residential architectures in Taiwan. Master Thesis, National Cheng Kung University.Google Scholar
  7. Kang NX (2011). Taiwan Traditional Architecture Illustration, 2nd edn. Taipei: OWL Publishing House.Google Scholar
  8. Lee CL (2003). Taiwan Traditional Architecture Graphic Solution. Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Lin FM (2008). A study on the interior environment of rural C-shape brick houses: A case study in Kouhu. Master Thesis, Feng Chia University.Google Scholar
  10. Lin FY (2004). A study of traditional quadrangle building and variation of indoor temperature and relative humidity of Lin’s Ancient compound at Nan-zi District, Kaohsiung City. Master Thesis, Shu-Te University.Google Scholar
  11. Ma B (1999). Beijing Siheyuan Architecture, 6th edn. Tianjin: Tianjin University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Nguyen A-T, Tran Q-B, Tran D-Q, Reiter S (2011). An investigation on climate responsive design strategies of vernacular housing in Vietnam. Building and Environment, 46: 2088–2106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Oikonomou A, Bougiatioti F (2011). Architectural structure and environmental performance of the traditional buildings in Florina, NW Greece. Building and Environment, 46: 669–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tang L, Nikolopoulou M, Zhao F, Zhang N (2012). CFD modeling of the built environment in Chinese historic settlements. Energy and Buildings, 55: 601–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yi D, Yu L, Hong Y (1996). Geomancy and the Selection of Architecture. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Science & Technology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban DevelopmentUniversity of TaipeiTaipei, TaiwanChina
  2. 2.Department of Architecture and Urban DesignChinese Culture UniversityTaiwanChina

Personalised recommendations