Advertisement

Building Simulation

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 21–33 | Cite as

Comparison of HVAC system modeling in EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E

  • Xin Zhou
  • Tianzhen Hong
  • Da YanEmail author
Research Article Building Systems and Components

Abstract

Building energy modeling programs (BEMPs) are effective tools for evaluating the energy savings potential of building technologies and optimizing building design. However, large discrepancies in simulated results from different BEMPs have raised wide concern. Therefore, it is strongly needed to identify, understand, and quantify the main elements that contribute towards the discrepancies in simulation results. ASHRAE Standard 140 provides methods and test cases for building thermal load simulations. This article describes a new process with various methods to look inside and outside the HVAC models of three BEMPs—EnergyPlus, DeST, and DOE-2.1E—and compare them in depth to ascertain their similarities and differences. The article summarizes methodologies, processes, and the main modeling assumptions of the three BEMPs in HVAC calculations. Test cases of energy models are designed to capture and analyze the calculation process in detail. The main findings are: (1) the three BEMPs are capable of simulating conventional HVAC systems, (2) matching user inputs is key to reducing discrepancies in simulation results, (3) different HVAC models can be used and sometimes there is no way to directly map between them, and (4) different HVAC control strategies are often used in different BEMPs, which is a driving factor of some major discrepancies in simulation results from various BEMPs. The findings of this article shed some light on how to compare HVAC calculations and how to control key factors in order to obtain consistent results from various BEMPs. This directly serves building energy modelers and policy makers in selecting BEMPs for building design, retrofit, code development, code compliance, and performance ratings.

Keywords

building energy modeling programs comparative tests DeST DOE-2.1E EnergyPlus HVAC system modeling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ANSI/ ASHRAE (2007). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2007, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. Atlanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  2. Crawley DB, Hand JW, Kummert M, Griffith BT (2008). Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs. Building and Environment, 43: 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. DOE-2 (1982). DOE-2 Engineers Manual Version 2.1A, LBL-11353.Google Scholar
  4. DOE-2 (1993). DOE-2 BDL Summary Version 2.1E, LBL-34946.Google Scholar
  5. DOE-2 (1984). DOE-2 Supplement Version 2.1C, LBL-8706. Rev. 4. Suppl.Google Scholar
  6. EnergyPlus (2011). Engineering Reference Version 7.0 Documentation. University of Illinois and Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Felsmann C (2008). Mechanical Equipment & Control Strategies for a Chilled Water and a Hot Water System. Available: http://archive.iea-shc.org/publications/downloads/task34-subtaskd.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  8. Henninger RH, Witte MJ (2011a). EnergyPlus Testing with IEA BESTEST Mechanical Equipment & Control Strategies for a Chilled Water and a Hot Water System, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_hvac_heat-cool-coil_tests.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  9. Henninger RH, Witte MJ (2011b). EnergyPlus Testing with Global Energy Balance Tests, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_hvac_global_tests.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Henninger RH, Witte MJ (2011c). EnergyPlus Testing with HVAC Equipment Performance Tests CE100 to CE200 from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2007, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_ashrae_140_hvac_ce100to200.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  11. Henninger RH, Witte MJ. (2011d). EnergyPlus Testing with HVAC Equipment Performance Tests CE300 to CE545 from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2007, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_ashrae_140_hvac_ce300to545.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  12. Henninger RH, Witte MJ (2011e). EnergyPlus Testing with Fuel-Fired Furnace Tests HE100 to HE230 from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2007, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_ashrae_140_hvac_he100to230.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  13. Henninger RH, Witte MJ (2011f). EnergyPlus Testing with HVAC Equipment Component Tests, EnergyPlus Version 7.2.0.006. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. Available: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/pdfs/energyplus_hvac_component_tests.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Judkoff R, Neymark J (2006). Model validation and testing: The methodological foundation of ASHRAE Standard 140. Paper presented at the ASHRAE 2006 Annual Meeting, Quebec City, Canada.Google Scholar
  15. Judkoff R, Neymark J (1995). International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) and Diagnostic Method. Available: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/6231.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Purdy J, Beausoleil-Morrison I (2003). Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST): Fuel-Fired Furnace Test Cases. Available: http://archive.iea-shc.org/publications/downloads/Furnace%20HVAC%20BESTEST%20Report.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Neymark J, Judkoff R (2002). International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) Volume 1: Cases E100-E200. Available: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/30152.pdf. Accessed Jan. 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones WP (1985). Air Conditioning Engineering. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  19. Yan D, Xia J, Tang W, Song F, Zhang X, Jiang Y (2008). DeST-An integrated building simulation toolkit, Part I: Fundamentals. Building Simulation, 1: 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yuill G, Haberl J (2002). Development of Accuracy Tests for Mechanical System Simulation, 865 TRP. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  21. Zhang X, Xia J, Jiang Z, Huang J, Qin R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Jiang Y (2008). DeST-An integrated building simulation toolkit, Part II: Applications. Building Simulation, 1: 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhu D, Yan D, Wang C, Hong T (2013). Comparison of building energy modeling programs: DeST, EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Building Simulation, 6: 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Building Science, School of ArchitectureTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations