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Building Simulation

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 89–106 | Cite as

A real-time model predictive control for building heating and cooling systems based on the occupancy behavior pattern detection and local weather forecasting

  • Bing Dong
  • Khee Poh Lam
Research Article Architecture and Human Behavior

Abstract

Current research studies show that building heating, cooling and ventilation energy consumption account for nearly 40% of the total building energy use in the U.S. The potential for saving energy through building control systems varies from 5% to 20% based on recent market surveys. This papers introduces and illustrates a methodology for integrated building heating and cooling control to reduce energy consumption and maintain indoor temperature set-point, based on the prediction of occupant behavior patterns and local weather conditions. Advanced machine learning methods including Adaptive Gaussian Process, Hidden Markov Model, Episode Discovery and Semi-Markov Model are modified and implemented into this study. A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) is designed and implemented in real-time based on dynamic programming. The experiment test-bed is setup in the Solar House, with over 100 sensor points measuring indoor environmental parameters, power consumption and ambient conditions. The experiments are carried out for two continuous months in the heating season and for a week in the cooling season. The results show that there is a 30.1% measured energy reduction in the heating season compared with the conventional scheduled temperature set-points, and 17.8% energy reduction in the cooling season.

Keywords

model predictive control occupancy behavior patterns weather forecasting real-time implementation 

List of symbols

A

wall or window surface area (m2)

Af

floor area (m2)

Cp_air

specific heat of the air (J/(kg·°C))

Cout

volumetric heat capacitance of the external part of the wall (J/(m3·°C))

Cint

volumetric heat capacitance of the internal part of the wall (J/(m3·°C))

CMR_wall_in

volumetric heat capacitance of the internal part of the wall in meeting room (J/(m3·°C))

Coz_wall_in

volumetric heat capacitance of the internal part of the wall in other zone (J/(m3·°C))

COff_wall_in

volumetric heat capacitance of the internal part of the wall in office (J/(m3·°C))

Cp_MR_cf

specific heat of concrete floor (J/(kg·°C))

Cr

correction factor due to the impact of indoor furniture

D

characteristic length (m)

hcf

overall heat transfer coefficient for floor surface, which includes both radiation and convection (W/(m2·°C))

mcf

concrete floor mass (kg)

\(\dot m_{fcu}\)

air mass flow rate for fan coil unit (kg/s)

l

length (m)

Qsurfo

outside surface heat flux (W)

Qsol_out

solar radiation on the outside surface of the wall (W)

Q

internal radiative heat gains absorbed by inside surface of the wall (W)

QFCU_MR

load from fan coil unit cooling (W)

Qint

load from internal heat gain (W)

Qinf

load from internal infiltration (W)

hcf_cov_n

natural convection (W/(m2·°C))

hcf_cov_f

forced convection (W/(m2·°C))

Rwall

thermal resistance of wall (°C/W)

RMR_air

thermal resistance of indoor air (°C/W)

RMR_co_f

thermal resistance of combined effects of radiation and convection between room air and radiant heating floor (°C/W)

RMR_cf

thermal resistance of concrete floor in meeting room (°C/W)

Roz_MR

thermal resistance between meeting room and other zone (°C/W)

RMR_Off

thermal resistance between meeting room and office (°C/W)

k

thermal conductivity of surface (W/(m·°C))

ΔT

indoor-outdoor temperature difference (°C)

Tamb

ambient air temperature (°C)

Tisurf

inside surface temperature (°C)

Tosurf

outside surface temperature (°C)

Tsur_MR_ini

surface temperature of the i-th internal wall (°C)

TMR_in

meeting room air temperature (°C)

TOff_in

office room air temperature (°C)

\(\bar T_{MR\_w}\)

temperature around the water tubes (°C)

Uwf

water to floor heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2·°C))

Xi

i-th state in Markov Model

X

a vector of unknown parameters

XL

lower bound of unknown parameters

XU

upper bound of unknown parameters

Nu

Nusselt number

Pr

Prandtl number

Re

Reynolds number

α

coefficient of absorbed solar radiation on the external surface of an external wall

αhp

correction factor for heat pump energy consumption

β

coefficient of absorbed transmitted solar radiation on the inside surface of an external wall

γ

coefficient of absorbed internal heat gains from occupancy and equipments by inside surface of the wall

σ

Stefan-Boltzmann constant (W/(m2·K4))

φ(·)

cost function of NMPC

g(·)

heat transfer functions

ε

surface total Hemispherical emissivity

λ

fluid conductivity (S/m)

Subscripts

cf

concrete floor

f

floor

g

ground

in

indoor

MR

meeting room

Off

office room

out

outdoor

oz

other zone

rf

roof

sur

surface

wi

water inlet

wo

water outlet

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.School of ArchitectureCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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