On the influence of building design, occupants and heat waves on comfort and greenhouse gas emissions in naturally ventilated offices. A study based on the EN 15251 adaptive thermal comfort model in Athens, Greece
- 309 Downloads
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change the buildings sector has the largest mitigation potential for CO2 emissions. Especially in office buildings, where internal heat loads and a relatively high occupant density occur at the same time with solar heat gains, overheating has become a common problem. In Europe the adaptive thermal comfort model according to EN 15251 provides a method to evaluate thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings. However, especially in the context of the climate change and the occurrence of heat waves within the last decade, the question arises, how thermal comfort can be maintained without additional cooling, especially in warm climates. In this paper a parametric study for a typical cellular naturally ventilated office room has been conducted, using the building simulation software EnergyPlus. It is based on the Mediterranean climate of Athens, Greece. Adaptive thermal comfort is evaluated according to EN 15251. Variations refer to different building design priorities, and they consider the variability of occupant behaviour and internal heat loads by using an ideal and worst case scenario. The influence of heat waves is considered by comparing measured temperatures for an average and an exceptionally hot year within the last decade. Since the use of building controls for shading affects thermal as well as visual comfort, daylighting and view are evaluated as well. Conclusions are drawn regarding the influence and interaction of building design, occupants and heat waves on comfort and greenhouse gas emissions in naturally ventilated offices, and related optimisation potential.
Keywordsbuilding design occupant behaviour heat waves greenhouse gas emissions EN 15251 adaptive thermal comfort visual comfort
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Boyce PR, Rea MS (2001). Lighting and Human Performance II: Beyond Visibility Models Toward a Unified Human Factors Approach to Performance, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, VA, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation, DC: 2001. 1006415.Google Scholar
- Coley DA (2008). Representing top-hung windows in thermal models. International Journal of Ventilation, 7: 151–158.Google Scholar
- Dietrich U (2006). Daylight-Characteristics and Basic Design Principles, Lighting Design: Principles, Implementation, Case Studies. Heidelberg: Birkhauser Verlag.Google Scholar
- DIN EN 12464-1 (2003). Light and lighting. Lighting of work places. Part 1: Indoor work places. Berlin: Beuth Verlag.Google Scholar
- DIN EN 15251 (2007). Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. Berlin: Beuth Verlag.Google Scholar
- Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2003). Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings. Official Journal of the European Communities, OJ L 1/65, 4 January 2003.Google Scholar
- EU-Energy-Star database (2008). Energy calculator, http://www.eu-energystar.org/en/en_008b.shtml. Accessed 15 Jul. 2008.
- Farley KMJ, Veitch JA(2001). A room with a view: A review of the effects of windows on work and well-being. National Research Council Canada, IRC-RR-136.Google Scholar
- Hellenic Ministry of Development (2008). Measures for reducing buildings’ energy consumption and other regulations, Law 3661/08, 19.05.2008, Appendix 1, Opuscule A, Table 2.2. (in Greek)Google Scholar
- Heschong L (2003). Windows and offices: A study of office worker performance and the indoor environment, Technical Report P500-03-082-A-9, California Energy Commission.Google Scholar
- Humphreys MA, Nicol JF (1998). Understanding the adaptive approach to thermal comfort. ASHRAE Transactions, 104 (1): 991–1004.Google Scholar
- Inkarojrit V (2005). Balancing comfort: Occupants’ control of window blinds in private offices, PhD thesis. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a). Climate change 2007: Mitigation of climate change. Working Group III Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Figure SPM.6. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007b). Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers, http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf. Accessed 17 Jan. 2010.
- Inui M (1980). Views through a window. In: Proceedings on Daylight, Physical, Psychological and Architectural Aspects. CIE, S. 323–331.Google Scholar
- Meteonorm 6.0 (2010). Global meteorological database for engineers, planners and education, www.meteonorm.com. Accessed 17 Jan. 2010.
- Newsham GR (1994). Manual control of window blinds and electric lighting: Implications for comfort and energy consumption. National Research Council Canada, NRCC-37021.Google Scholar
- Relux Professional (2007). Calculation and light design program, http://www.relux.biz. Accessed 17 Jan. 2010.
- Tsangrassoulis A (1997). Air mass and visible radiation transfer through partly covered building openings, PhD thesis. Athens www.ekt.gr. (in Greek)Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Energy (2007). EnergyPlus Documentation, EnergyPlus Manual, Version 2.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Energy (2010a). EnergyPlus standard weather data taken from website: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weather_data3.cfm/region=6_europe_wmo_region_6/country=GRC/cname=Greece. Accessed 17 Jan. 2010.
- U.S. Department of Energy (2010b). Weather data request form, website http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weatherdata/weather_request.cfm. Accessed 17 Jan. 2010.