Simulation-based assessment of the energy savings benefits of integrated control in office buildings
- 328 Downloads
The purpose of this study is to use existing simulation tools to quantify the energy savings benefits of integrated control in office buildings. An EnergyPlus medium office benchmark simulation model (V1.0_3.0) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) was used as a baseline model for this study. The baseline model was modified to examine the energy savings benefits of three possible control strategies compared to a benchmark case across 16 DOE climate zones. Two controllable subsystems were examined: (1) dimming of electric lighting, and (2) controllable window transmission. Simulation cases were run in EnergyPlus V3.0.0 for building window-to-wall ratios (WWR) of 33% and 66%. All three strategies employed electric lighting dimming resulting in lighting energy savings in building perimeter zones ranging from 64% to 84%. Integrated control of electric lighting and window transmission resulted in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy savings ranging from −1% to 40%. Control of electric lighting and window transmission with HVAC integration (seasonal schedule of window transmission control) resulted in HVAC energy savings ranging from 3% to 43%. HVAC energy savings decreased moving from warm climates to cold climates and increased when moving from humid, to dry, to marine climates.
Keywordsdaylighting energy conservation energy management systems energy efficiency energy consumption lighting control systems
- ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (2004). American National Standards Institute, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.Google Scholar
- Apte J, Arasteh D (2006). Window-related energy consumption in the US residential and commercial building stock. Lawrence berkeley National Laboratory report: LBNL-60146.Google Scholar
- Arasteh D, Selkowitz S, Apte J, LaFrance, M (2006). Zero energy windows. Paper presented at the ACEEE Summer Study, Pacific Grove, California.Google Scholar
- Briggs RS, Lucas RG, Taylor ZT (2002). Climate classification for building energy codes and standards. Technical paper final review draft, Pacific NW National Laboratory. Available via http://www.energycodes.gov/implement/pdfs/climate_paper_review_draft_rev.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan. 2009.
- DAYSIM (2003). National Research Council Canada, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. http://www.daysim.com.
- Deru M, Griffith B, Torcellini P (2006). Establishing benchmarks for DOE commercial building R&D and program evaluation. Paper presented at the ACEEE Summer Study, Pacific Grove, California.Google Scholar
- Deru M, Torcellini P (2007). Source energy and emission factors for energy use in buildings. NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-550-38617.Google Scholar
- DOE (2008). Commercial building benchmark models. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings.
- DOE-2.1E (1995). James J. Hirsch & Associates, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://www.doe2.com.
- Energy Information Administration (2003). Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey.Google Scholar
- EnergyPlus (2008). U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. http://www.energyplus.gov.
- Floyd D, Parker D (1995). Field commissioning of a daylight-dimming lighting system. Paper presented at the Right Light Tree, 3rd European Conference on Energy Efficient Lighting, Newcastle upon Tyne, England.Google Scholar
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (2006). WINDOW 5.2. http://windows.lbl.gov/software/window/window.html. Accessed 15 Jan. 2009.
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (2008). International Glazing Database. http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/IGDB/default.htm. Accessed 15 Jan. 2009.
- Lee ES, Yazdanian M, Selkowitz SE (2004). The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report: LBNL-54966.Google Scholar
- Lee ES, Zhou L, Yazdanian M, Inkarojrit V, Slack J, Rubin M, Selkowitz SE (2002). Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report: LBNL-50096.Google Scholar
- Navigant Consulting, Inc. (2002). U.S. lighting market characterization Volume I: National lighting inventory and energy consumption estimate. Prepared for Building Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.Google Scholar
- Simulink (2009). The Mathworks, Inc. http://www.mathworks.com/products/simulink.
- Torcellini P, Deru M, Griffith B, Benne K, Halverson M, Winiarski D, Crawley DB (2008). DOE commercial building benchmark models. Paper presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, California.Google Scholar
- Wilcox S, Marion W (2008). Users Manual for TMY3 Data Sets. NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-581-43156.Google Scholar