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Emerging immune gene signatures as prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer

  • Mi Jeong KwonEmail author
Review
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Abstract

Several multigene assays have been developed to predict the risk of distant recurrence and response to adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. However, the prognostic or predictive value of current proliferation gene signature-based assays are limited to hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2−) early breast cancer. Considerable discordance between the different assays in classifying patients into risk groups has also been reported, thus raising questions about the clinical utility of these assays for individual patients. Therefore, there still remains a need for better prognostic or predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. The role of immune cells comprising tumor microenvironment in tumor progression has been recognized. Accumulating evidences have shown that immune gene signatures and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can be prognostic or predictive factors in breast cancer, particularly with regard to HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer. In this review, I summarize current multigene assays for breast cancer and discuss recent progress in identifying novel breast cancer biomarkers, focusing on the emerging importance of immune gene signatures and TILs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers.

Keywords

Breast cancer Prognostic biomarker Predictive biomarker Multigene assay Immune gene signatures Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of a Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (Grant Number: NRF-2018R1D1A1B07043031).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, College of PharmacyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea

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