Various approaches for measurement of synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the central nerve terminal
At the presynaptic terminal, neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are released and recycled via exo- and endocytosis. SV endocytosis is crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission by maintaining the SV pool. Many studies have shown that presynaptic dysfunction, particularly impairment of SV endocytosis, is related to neurological disorders. Notably, the presynaptic terminal is considered to be a sensitive structure because certain presynaptic dysfunctions, manifested as impaired SV endocytosis or ultrastructural changes in the presynaptic terminal, can be observed before there is a biochemical or pathological evidence of a neurological disorder. Therefore, monitoring and assessing the presynaptic function by SV endocytosis facilitates the development of early markers for neurological disorders. In this study, we reviewed the current methods for assessing and visualizing SV endocytosis at the central nerve terminal.
KeywordsPresynaptic terminal Synaptic vesicle Endocytosis Method Central nerve terminal
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Grant funded by the Korea Government (MEST) (No. 2017R1D1A1B03031920), and the Chung-Ang University Graduate Research Scholarship in 2018.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Arranz AM, Delbroek L, Van Kolen K, Guimaraes MR, Mandemakers W, Daneels G, Matta S, Calafate S, Shaban H, Baatsen P, De Bock PJ, Gevaert K, Vanden Berghe P, Verstreken P, De Strooper B, Moechars D (2015) LRRK2 functions in synaptic vesicle endocytosis through a kinase-dependent mechanism. J Cell Sci 128:541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Castermans D, Volders K, Crepel A, Backx L, De Vos R, Freson K, Meulemans S, Vermeesch JR, Schrander-Stumpel CT, De Rijk P, Del-Favero J, Van Geet C, Van De Ven WJ, Steyaert JG, Devriendt K, Creemers JW (2010) SCAMP5, NBEA and AMISYN: three candidate genes for autism involved in secretion of large dense-core vesicles. Hum Mol Genet 19:1368–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Denker A, Rizzoli SO (2010) Synaptic vesicle pools: an update. Front Synaptic Neurosci 2:135Google Scholar
- Kononenko NL, Puchkov D, Classen GA, Walter AM, Pechstein A, Sawade L, Kaempf N, Trimbuch T, Lorenz D, Rosenmund C, Maritzen T, Haucke V (2014) Clathrin/AP-2 mediate synaptic vesicle reformation from endosome-like vacuoles but are not essential for membrane retrieval at central synapses. Neuron 82:981–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shin W, Ge L, Arpino G, Villarreal SA, Hamid E, Liu H, Zhao WD, Wen PJ, Chiang HC, Wu LG (2018) Visualization of membrane pore in live cells reveals a dynamic-pore theory governing fusion and endocytosis. Cell 173(934–945):e12Google Scholar
- Smith JE, Reese TS (1980) Use of aldehyde fixatives to determine the rate of synaptic transmitter release. J Exp Biol 89:19–29Google Scholar
- Soykan T, Kaempf N, Sakaba T, Vollweiter D, Goerdeler F, Puchkov D, Kononenko NL, Haucke V (2017) Synaptic vesicle endocytosis occurs on multiple timescales and is mediated by formin-dependent actin assembly. Neuron 93(854–866):e4Google Scholar
- Wen PJ, Grenklo S, Arpino G, Tan X, Liao HS, Heureaux J, Peng SY, Chiang HC, Hamid E, Zhao WD, Shin W, Nareoja T, Evergren E, Jin Y, Karlsson R, Ebert SN, Jin A, Liu AP, Shupliakov O, Wu LG (2016) Actin dynamics provides membrane tension to merge fusing vesicles into the plasma membrane. Nat Commun 7:12604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yan M, Zhang Y, Qin H, Liu K, Guo M, Ge Y, Xu M, Sun Y, Zheng X (2016) Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress. Int J Nanomed 11:529–542Google Scholar