Development of a linear dual column HPLC–MS/MS method and clinical genetic evaluation for tramadol and its phase I and II metabolites in oral fluid
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Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic and has received special attention due to its abuse potential and unexpected responses induced by CYP2D6 polymorphism. Oral fluid is an advantageous biofluid for drug analysis due to non-invasive sampling and high correlation of drug concentrations with plasma. However, few studies have been performed on distribution of tramadol and its metabolites in oral fluid. In the present study, a linear dual column HPLC–MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of tramadol and its phase I [O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT), N-desmethyltramadol (NDMT) and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (NODMT)] and II metabolites in oral fluid. Furthermore, the distribution of tramadol and its metabolites, in relation to CYP2D6 genetic variations, in oral fluid was investigated following a clinical study including 23 subjects with CYP2D6*wt/*wt, CYP2D6*10/*10 or CYP2D6*5/*5. The validation results of selectivity, matrix effect, linearity, precision and accuracy were satisfactory. Pharmacokinetic parameters, such as Css,max and AUC0–τ of tramadol, NDMT and NODMT, in the CYP2D6*10/*10 group were significantly higher than those in the CYP2D6*wt/*wt group. Moreover, the ratios of ODMT/tramadol, NDMT/tramadol and NODMT/NDMT correlated well with the CYP2D6 genotypes. We demonstrated that oral fluid is a promising biofluid for pharmacokinetic evaluation in relation to genetic variations.
KeywordsTramadol Oral fluid Dual column HPLC–MS/MS CYP2D6 Genetic variation
This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2015M3A9E1028327) and by the Basic Science Research Program of NRF funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1A6A1A03011325).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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