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Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 131–145 | Cite as

Innate immunity against Legionella pneumophila during pulmonary infections in mice

  • Bonggoo Park
  • Gayoung Park
  • Jiyoung Kim
  • Seon Ah Lim
  • Kyung-Mi Lee
Review

Abstract

Legionella pneumophila is an etiological agent of the severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease (LD). This gram-negative bacterium is thought to replicate naturally in various freshwater amoebae, but also replicates in human alveolar macrophages. Inside host cells, legionella induce the production of non-endosomal replicative phagosomes by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol. Innate immune responses are first line defenses against legionella during early phases of infection, and distinguish between legionella and host cells using germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors , NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are absent in host cells. During pulmonary legionella infections, various inflammatory cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells, large mononuclear cells, B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are recruited into infected lungs, and predominantly occupy interstitial areas to control legionella. During pulmonary legionella infections, the interplay between distinct cytokines and chemokines also modulates innate host responses to clear legionella from the lungs. Recognition by NK cell receptors triggers effector functions including secretion of cytokines and chemokines, and leads to lysis of target cells. Crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages provides a major first-line defense against legionella infection, whereas activation of T and B cells resolves the infection and mounts legionella-specific memory in the host.

Keywords

Legionella pneumophila Pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor NOD-like receptor Pulmonary infection Natural killer cells 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (Grants NRF-2013M3A9D3045719). B. Park is also supported by a Grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (2014R1A1A2057068).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonggoo Park
    • 1
  • Gayoung Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiyoung Kim
    • 1
  • Seon Ah Lim
    • 1
  • Kyung-Mi Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyKorea University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Biomicrosystem TechnologyKorea UniversitySeoulKorea

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