Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. To manage OA, in general, oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used. Recently, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long-acting NSAID, by intra-articular (IA) administration in OA was reported, and the possibility that PX is distributed in articular tissues at a certain concentration was raised. Thus, herein, novel LC–MS/MS methods to detect PX in rat articular tissue and plasma are presented. For articular tissue, solvent extraction with acetonitrile for 12 h was employed and a protein precipitation method was used for the preparation of a plasma sample. The developed methods were validated by following the FDA guidelines, and the validated methods were successfully applied to a PK study of IA PX. The present study presents, to our knowledge, the first method of determining a drug in articular tissue. Additionally, the level of PX in articular tissue after IA PX administration was experimentally confirmed for the first time using the present methods. Therefore, the present methods provide a new direction for in vivo evaluation for IA PX formulations and contribute to the development of alternative IA PX formulations with better effects for the treatment of OA.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
We greatfully thank Prof. Young Wook Choi, Mr. Sung Rae Kim, Mr. Sang Hyun Kim (Chung-Ang University), and Ms. Sun Young Kim (Dankook University) for their technical supports. The present research was conducted by the research fund of Dankook University in 2014 (YSC).
Abdel-Hamid ME (2000) LC-MS analysis of selected sulfur-containing non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents: applications to pharmaceutical products. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 23:3095–3107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acree WE Jr (2014) IUPAC-NIST solubility data series. 102. solubility of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in neat organic solvents and organic solvent mixtures. J Phys Chem Ref Data 43:023102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buckland-Wright C (2004) Subchondral bone changes in hand and knee osteoarthritis detected by radiography. Osteoarthr Cartil 18:S10–S19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colbert ST, Curran E, O’Hanlon DM, Moran R, McCarroll M (1999) Intra-articular tenoxicam improves postoperative analgesia in knee arthroscopy. Can J Anaesth 46:653–657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Deeks JJ, Smith LA, Bradley MD (2002) Efficacy, tolerability and upper gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib for treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ 325:619CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Elhakim M, Fathy A, Elkott M, Said MM (1996) Intra-articular tenoxicam relieves post-arthroscopy pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:1223–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ganesh M, Hemalatha P, Peng MM, Sakthimanigandan K, Jang HT (2013) Estimation of meloxicam in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 36:867–880Google Scholar
Glyn-Jones S, Palmer AJ, Agricola R, Price AJ, Vincent TL, Weinans H, Carr AJ (2015) Osteoarthritis. Lancet 386:376–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Hart FD, Huskisson EC (1984) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: current status and rational therapeutic use. Drugs 27:232–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Haywood L, McWilliams DF, Pearson CI, Gill SE, Ganesan A, Wilson D, Walsh DA (2003) Inflammation and angiogenesis in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 48:2173–2177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Herrin GL, McCurdy HH, Wall WH (2005) Investigation of an LC–MS-MS (QTrap) method for the rapid screening and identification of drugs in postmortem toxicology whole blood samples. J Anal Toxicol 29:599–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Liang LS, Wong W, Burt HM (2005) Pharmacokinetic study of methotrexate following intra-articular injection of methotrexate loaded poly (l-lactic acid) microspheres in rabbits. J Pharm Sci 94:1204–1215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
March L, Smith EU, Hoy DG, Cross MJ, Sanchez-Riera L, Blyth F, Buchbinder R, Vos T, Woolf AD (2014) Burden of disability due to musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 28:353–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Nikolić VD, Ilić-Stojanović SS, Nikolić LB, Cakić MD (2014) Photostability of piroxicam in the inclusion complex with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. Hem Ind 68:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park CW, Ma KW, Jag SW, Son M, Kang MJ (2014) Comparison of piroxicam pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory effect in rats after intra-articular and intramuscular administration. Biomol Ther 22:260–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park JS, Cho HR, Kang MJ, Choi YS (2016) A rapid and sensitive method to determine tacrolimus in rat whole blood using liquid-liquid extraction with mild temperature ultrasonication and LC–MS/MS. Arch Pharm Res 39:73–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Pelletier JP (2016) Efficacy and safety of oral NSAIDs and analgesics in the management of osteoarthritis: evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Semin Arthritis Rheum 45:S22–S27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Richardson CJ, Blocka KL, Ross SG, Verbeeck RK (1985) Effects of age and sex on piroxicam disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther 37:13–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Unlu Z, Ay K, Tuzun C (2006) Comparison of intra-articular tenoxicam and oral tenoxicam for pain and physical functioning in osteoarthritis of the knee. Clin Rheumatol 25:54–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar