Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 398–408 | Cite as

Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of pelargonidin in vivo and in vitro

  • Sae-Kwang Ku
  • Eun-Kyung Yoon
  • Wonhwa Lee
  • Sinae Kwon
  • Taeho Lee
  • Jong-Sup BaeEmail author
Research Article


Pelargonidin is a well-known red pigment found in plants, and has been reported as having important biological activities that are potentially beneficial for human health. However, the possible roles of pelargonidin as an anticoagulant and the underlying mechanism have not yet been elucidated. We tested the effect of pelargonidin and its glucoside-conjugated form, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, on the clotting times, such as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT), and the activities and productions of thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). Furthermore, the effects of pelargonidin on the fibrin polymerization, platelet aggregation, and the ratio of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to tissue plasminogen activator were determined. Pelargonidin, but not pelargonidin-3-glucoside, prolonged the aPTT and PT, and inhibited the activity and production of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, pelargonidin inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation and elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. In addition, pelargonidin significantly reduced PAI-1 to t-PA ratio. Collectively, these results indicate that the anthocyanin pelargonidin possesses antithrombotic activity, and can be beneficial in preventing thrombus formation, thus improving blood circulation.


Pelargonidin Anticoagulation Antiplatelets Fibrinolysis Endothelium 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2012R1A5A2A42671316) and a grant (PJ010840) from the Agenda program, Rural Development Administration.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interes

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sae-Kwang Ku
    • 1
  • Eun-Kyung Yoon
    • 2
  • Wonhwa Lee
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sinae Kwon
    • 2
  • Taeho Lee
    • 2
  • Jong-Sup Bae
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean MedicineDaegu Haany UniversityGyeongsanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of MedicineKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea

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