In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of constituents of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.
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This study performed phytochemical and bioactive assessments of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. leaves. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts led to the identification of thirty-six compounds (1–36), their structures were elucidated using detailed NMR spectroscopic and MS analysis. The extracts, fractions, and the isolated compounds were screened for potential antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Antioxidant assays were performed using peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing assays, whereas cytotoxicity was measured using MTT assays in HL-60 and Hel-299 cell lines. The methanolic extract, CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH fractions (10.0 μg/mL) exhibited potent antioxidant activity, with Trolox equivalent (TE) values of 24.94 ± 0.59, 28.34 ± 0.20, and 27.09 ± 0.37 (μM), respectively. In addition, the isolated compounds exerted cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent manner; compounds 1 and 14 exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells, with IC50 values of 0.15 ± 0.29 and 0.60 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. To clarify the mechanism(s) behind these cytotoxic effects, we measured the time-dependent changes in apoptotic markers including the condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin, and the downregulation of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, and c-Myc levels.
KeywordsLumnitzera racemosa Combretaceae Antioxidant Cytotoxic Apoptosis
This study was supported by Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (Code: VAST.ĐTCB 02/13-14), and the Priority Research Center Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2009-0093815), Republic of Korea.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest.
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