Protective effects of propolis and thymoquinone on development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits
- 531 Downloads
Hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol-enriched diet and oxidative stress have been shown to increase serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels resulting in development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infectious and degenerative diseases. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible protective effects of propolis (a resinous hive product collected by honeybees from various plant sources) and thymoquinone (TQ, active constituent of Nigella. Sativa seeds oil) on serum lipid levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholestrolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were fed on either standard chow or atherogenic diet during four weeks and concomitantly received either propolis or TQ. At the end of experiment period, serum samples were collected to determine lipid profile, kidney functions and antioxidant status. Tissues from aorta, pulmonary artery and kidney were taken for histopathological examination. The cholesterol-enriched diet induced a significant increase in serum TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentrations and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and in reduced glutathione levels compared to control group. Administration of propolis or TQ with cholesterol-enriched diet significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TC, LDL-C, triglycerides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentrations, while increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, as well as glutathione content compared to high cholesterol (HC) control group. Kidney function parameters were significantly affected by cholesterol diet and both propolis and TQ counterregulated the cholesterol-induced changes. Histopathologically, early athersclerotic changes were observed in HC control group represented by endothelial damage and thickened foam cells while propolis or TQ provided protection against the HC-induced damage. In conclusion, the present study suggests the potential beneficial effects of both propolis and TQ in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis via antioxidant mechanism.
Key wordsPropolis Thymoquinone Atherosclerosis Cholesterol Oxidative stress Rabbits
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bankova, V. S., Boudourova-Krasteva, G., Sforcin, J. M., Fretea, X., Kujumgievc, A., Maimoni-Rodellab, R., and Popova, S., Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo State. Z. Naturforsch., 54c, 401–405 (1999).Google Scholar
- Chenni, A., Yahia, D. A., Boukortt, F. O., Prost, J., Lacaille-Dubois, M. A., and Bouchenak, M., Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. J. Ethnopharmacol., 109, 207–213 (2007).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Henry, R. J., Cannon, D. C., and Winkelman, J. W., Clinical chemistry, Principles and Techniques, 2nd ed, Lange Medical Publication, Prentice Hall, London, pp. 252, (1974).Google Scholar
- Montilla, P., Espejo, I., Muñoz, M. C., Bujalance, I., Muñoz-Castañeda, J. R., and Tunez, I., Protective effect of red wine on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain and kidney induced by feeding high cholesterol in rats. Clin. Nutr., 25, 146–153 (2006).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scheuer, H., Gwinner, W., Hohbach, J., Gröne, E. F., Brandes, R. P., Malle, E., Olbricht, C. J., Walli, A. K., and Gröne, H. J., Oxidant stress in hyperlipidemia-induced renal damage. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 278, 63–74 (2000).Google Scholar
- Smith Jr., S. C., Jackson, R., Pearson, T. A., Fuster, V., Yusuf, S., Faergeman, O., Wood, D. A., Alderman, M., Horgan, J., Home, P., Hunn, M., and Grundy, S. M., Principles for national and regional guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the World Heart and Stroke Forum. Circulation, 109, 3112–3121 (2004).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zulkhairi, A., Zaiton, Z., Jamaluddin, M., Sharida, F., Mohd, T. H., Hasnah, B., Nazmi, H. M., Khairul, O., and Zanariyah, A., Alpha lipoic acid posses dual antioxidant and lipid lowering properties in atherosclerotic-induced New Zealand White rabbit. Biomed. Pharmacother., 62, 716–722 (2008).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar