, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 143–145 | Cite as

Erzeugung virtueller 3D-Bilder mit jedem Lichtmikroskop oder REM

  • Heribert CypionkaEmail author
  • Eckhard Völcker
  • Manfred Rohde
Wissenschaft · Methoden Stacking-Programm PICOLAY


A major issue of microphotography is the limited depth of focus. This problem can be overcome by taking series of images (z-stacks), which are processed by focus-stacking software to extract a sharp image with an infinite depth of focus. Furthermore, a depth map describing the z-positions of the sharpest pixels is produced, that can be used to generate virtual 3D images. Here we describe the freeware program PICOLAY and its use with light- and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For SEM, we show different ways to produce stereoscopic images, based on only two or even a single image.


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  1. [1]
    Raap E, Cypionka H (2011) Vom Bilderstapel in die dritte Dimension: 3D-Mikroaufnahmen mit PICOLAY. Mikrokosmos 100:140–144Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heribert Cypionka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eckhard Völcker
    • 2
  • Manfred Rohde
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM)Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universität OldenburgOldenburgDeutschland
  2. 2.Penard LabsBerlinDeutschland
  3. 3.Helmholtz-Zentrum für InfektionsforschungBraunschweigDeutschland

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