Plasma Complement Protein C3a Level Was Associated with Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Patients on Hemodialysis
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The complement system plays an important role in cardiovascular disease in patients on hemodialysis. Vascular calcification is also one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease. We want to investigate the relationship between complement activation and vascular calcification in dialyzed patients. One hundred eight hemodialysis patients and 65 heathy controls were enrolled prospectively. Plasma C3a, C5a, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9) levels were detected using ELISA. Plasma C3c, fB, fH, C1q, and C4 levels were measured by immunity transmission turbidity. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was measured by abdomen lateral plain radiograph, and the AAC score was calculated. We identified increased level of MBL and decreased level of C3c and complement factor B compared with normal control. However, C1q, complement factor H, and C4 levels remained at a similar level compared with individuals with normal renal function. The C3a and C5a levels increased, without change of MAC. Forty two of 108 HD patients had the AAC score. C3a levels were correlated with AAC score (r = 0.461, p = 0.002). The median C3a concentration was 238.72 (196.96, 323.41) ng/mL. When evaluated as AAC categories (≤ 4, > 5) with ordinal logistic regression, univariate analyses revealed that higher C3a levels were associated with severe AAC, while multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and calcium level showed that higher C3a levels (OR, 6.28 (1.25–31.69); p = 0.03) were associated with severe AAC. The areas under the curve (AUC) for C3a to diagnose severe abdominal aortic calcification were 0.75(0.58–0.92, 0.01). The complement system was activated in patients on hemodialysis. Higher C3a levels are independently associated with severe AAC. Plasma C3a might have a diagnostic value for the severe AAC in HD patients.
KeywordsComplement factors C3a Abdominal aortic calcification Hemodialysis
Y.Q.W., Y.Q.C., and M.H.Z. prepared the manuscript. Y.Q.C. and Y.Q.W. designed the study and organized the coordination. Y.Q.W., Y.Y.M, K.J.G., and X.Y.C collected the specimens and basic characteristics of all the patients. Y.Q.W. performed the experiments and the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81270820).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of Peking University First Hospital and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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