Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research

, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 689–699

What’s New in Regenerative Medicine: Split up of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Family Promises New Hope for Cardiovascular Repair

  • Rosa Vono
  • Gaia Spinetti
  • Miriam Gubernator
  • Paolo Madeddu


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is exceedingly prevalent and requires care optimization. Regenerative medicine holds promise to improve the clinical outcome of CAD patients. Current approach consists in subsidizing the infarcted heart with boluses of autologous stem cells from the bone marrow. Moreover, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are in the focus of intense research owing to an apparent superiority in plasticity and regenerative capacity compared with hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we report recent findings indicating the presence, within the heterogeneous MSC population, of perivascular stem cells expressing typical pericyte markers. Moreover, we focus on recent research showing the presence of similar cells in the adventitia of large vessels. These discoveries were fundamental to shape a roadmap toward clinical application in patients with myocardial ischemia. Adventitial stem cells are ideal candidates for promotion of cardiac repair owing to their ease of accessibility and expandability and potent vasculogenic activity.


Coronary artery disease Regenerative medicine Mesenchymal stem cells Pericytes 



Acute myocardial infarction


Advanced therapy medicinal product


Atrial natriuretic peptide


Bone marrow


Bone morphogenetic protein 2


Cardiac output


Cardiac progenitor cells


Cardiac stem cells


Cardiac troponin


Coronary artery bypass graft


Coronary artery disease


Critical limb ischemia


Foetal aorta-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Endothelial growth medium


European Medicine Agency


Heart failure


Hepatocyte growth factor


Human MSCs


Human Tissue Authority


Insulin-like growth factor 1




Left ventricular ejection fraction


Mesenchymal stem cells


Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2




β-myosin heavy chain


Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency


National Health System Blood and Transplant


Notch delta-like 4 ligand


Peripheral blood


Platelet-derived growth factor-BB


Podocalyxin-like protein 1


P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1


Ras-GTPase activating protein


Standard operating protocol


Stromal cell-derived factor-1


Transforming growth factor β1


Vascular endothelial growth factor


von Willerbrand Factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Vono
    • 1
  • Gaia Spinetti
    • 1
  • Miriam Gubernator
    • 2
  • Paolo Madeddu
    • 2
  1. 1.Multimedica IRCCSMilanItaly
  2. 2.Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, Regenerative Medicine Section, Bristol Heart InstituteSchool of Clinical Sciences, University of BristolBristolUK

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