Relationship between Retrograde Coronary Blood Flow and the Extent of No-Reflow and Infarct Size in a Porcine Ischemia–Reperfusion Model

  • Stavros Stavrakis
  • John Terrovitis
  • Elias Tsolakis
  • Stavros Drakos
  • Argirios Dalianis
  • Michael Bonios
  • Dimitrios Koudoumas
  • Konstantinos Malliaras
  • John Nanas


Recanalization of an infarct-related artery does not predictably reflect tissue reperfusion. We examined the relationship between coronary blood flow (CBF) pattern during reperfusion and infarcted (IA) and no-reflow (NR) area in a porcine ischemia–reperfusion model. The mid-left anterior descending artery of 18 pigs was occluded for 1 h and reperfused for 2 h. CBF during reperfusion was measured with a transit-time ultrasound flowmeter, while systemic arterial and left atrial pressures were monitored. IA and NR were measured with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and thioflavin staining, respectively. In 13 pigs, early systolic retrograde CBF developed within the first 30 min and persisted throughout reperfusion. No retrograde CBF was observed in five pigs. Mean retrograde CBF at 2 h of reperfusion predicted a larger IA (r = 0.71; p = 0.001). Time-to-development of retrograde CBF was inversely related to IA (r = −0.55; p = 0.019) and NR (r = −0.62; p = 0.006). A larger IA (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.24, p = 0.037) and NR (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.18, p = 0.037) predicted the presence of retrograde CBF. Retrograde CBF during recanalization of the infarct-related artery predicts IA and NR and might be used as an index of successful reperfusion at the tissue level.


Myocardial ischemia Myocardial infarction Coronary reperfusion Coronary blood flow No-reflow phenomenon 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stavros Stavrakis
    • 2
  • John Terrovitis
    • 1
  • Elias Tsolakis
    • 2
  • Stavros Drakos
    • 1
  • Argirios Dalianis
    • 1
  • Michael Bonios
    • 1
  • Dimitrios Koudoumas
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Malliaras
    • 1
  • John Nanas
    • 1
  1. 1.3rd Department of CardiologyUniversity of Athens School of Medicine “Laiko” HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Clinical TherapeuticsUniversity of Athens School of Medicine “Alexandra” HospitalAthensGreece

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