Gender Dimorphisms in Progenitor and Stem Cell Function in Cardiovascular Disease

  • Jeremy L. Herrmann
  • Aaron M. Abarbanell
  • Brent R. Weil
  • Mariuxi C. Manukyan
  • Jeffrey A. Poynter
  • Yue Wang
  • Arthur C. Coffey
  • Daniel R. Meldrum


Differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes between men and women have long been recognized and attributed, in part, to gender and sex steroids. Gender dimorphisms also exist with respect to the roles of progenitor and stem cells in post-ischemic myocardial and endothelial repair and regeneration. Understanding how these cells are influenced by donor gender and the recipient hormonal milieu may enable researchers to further account for the gender-related disparities in clinical outcomes as well as utilize the beneficial effects of these hormones to optimize transplanted cell function and survival. This review discusses (1) the cardiovascular effects of sex steroids (specifically estradiol and testosterone); (2) the therapeutic potentials of endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and embryonic stem cells; and (3) the direct effect of sex steroids on these cell types.


Progenitor Cells Stem Cell Therapy Sex Steroids Gender Differences Cardiovascular Disease 



Androgen receptor


Bone morphogenetic protein-2


Coronary artery disease




Endothelial nitric oxide synthase


Estrogen receptor


Endothelial progenitor cell


Embryonic stem cell


Fibroblast growth factor


Hypoxia-inducible factor


Insulin-like growth factor-1






Myocardial infarction


Mesenchymal stem cell




Stromal cell-derived factor-1


Suppressor of cytokine signaling


Signal transducer and activator of transcription




Tumor necrosis factor


Tumor necrosis factor receptor


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy L. Herrmann
    • 2
  • Aaron M. Abarbanell
    • 2
  • Brent R. Weil
    • 2
  • Mariuxi C. Manukyan
    • 2
  • Jeffrey A. Poynter
    • 2
  • Yue Wang
    • 2
  • Arthur C. Coffey
    • 1
  • Daniel R. Meldrum
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Clarian Cardiovascular Surgery, Methodist HospitalIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Cellular and Integrative PhysiologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  4. 4.Center for ImmunobiologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  5. 5.IndianapolisUSA

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