MicroRNA21 Meets Neuronal TLR8: Non-canonical Functions of MicroRNA in Neuropathic Pain
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-known as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system for recognizing pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns . TLRs play an essential role in the innate and adaptive immune responses. To date, 10 functional TLRs have been identified in humans (TLR1–TLR10) and 12 in mice (TLR1–TLR9 and TLR11–TLR13) . TLRs are evolutionarily conserved type I transmembrane proteins and comprise an ectodomain characterized by leucine-rich repeats mediating the recognition of ligands, a transmembrane region, and cytosolic Toll-interleukin (IL)-1 receptor domains that activate the downstream signaling pathways . Most types of TLRs form homodimers between themselves, but certain TLRs can also form heterodimers, such as TLR1/TLR2 and TLR2/TLR6. The adaptor protein MyD88 is required for the downstream signaling of most TLRs, but not for TLR3 signaling. The adaptor protein TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β) is used...
We thank Prof. Yong-Jing Gao for critical reading of the manuscript. Tong Liu was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81870874, 31371179, and 81300968) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20170004 and 2015-JY-029).