Development of an Autism Subtyping Questionnaire Based on Social Behaviors

  • Fan-Chao Meng
  • Xin-Jie Xu
  • Tian-Jia Song
  • Xiao-Jing Shou
  • Xiao-Li Wang
  • Song-Ping Han
  • Ji-Sheng Han
  • Rong Zhang
Original Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder can be differentiated into three subtypes (aloof, passive, and active-but-odd) based on social behaviors according to the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire (WSQ). However, the correlations between the scores on some individual items and the total score are poor. In the present study, we translated the WSQ into Chinese, modified it, validated it in autistic and typically-developing Chinese children, and renamed it the Beijing Autism Subtyping Questionnaire (BASQ). Our results demonstrated that the BASQ had improved validity and reliability, and differentiated autistic children into these three subtypes more precisely. We noted that the autistic symptoms tended to be severe in the aloof, moderate in the passive, and mild in the active-but-odd subtypes. The modified questionnaire may facilitate etiological studies and the selection of therapeutic regimes.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Subtypes Wing Subgroups Questionnaire Beijing Autism Subtyping Questionnaire 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the grant from the University of Ulm–Peking University Health Science Center Joint Center for Neuroscience Fund (BMU20160563) and the grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81601196).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12264_2018_224_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 16 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Beglinger L, Smith T. Concurrent validity of social subtype and IQ after early intensive behavioral intervention in children with autism: a preliminary investigation. J Autism Dev Disord 2005, 35: 295–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wing L, Gould J. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. J Autism Dev Disord 1979, 9: 11–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borden MC, Ollendick TH. An examination of the validity of social subtypes in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1994, 24: 23–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castelloe P, Dawson G. Subclassification of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder: a questionnaire based on Wing’s subgrouping scheme. J Autism Dev Disord 1993, 23: 229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eaves LC, Ho HH, Eaves DM. Subtypes of autism by cluster analysis. J Autism Dev Disord 1994, 24: 3–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’Brien SK. The validity and reliability of the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire. J Autism Dev Disord 1996, 26: 321–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ, Bregman JD, Hooks MY, Stevenson JM. An examination of social typologies in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989, 28: 82–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Modahl C, Green L, Fein D, Morris M, Waterhouse L, Feinstein C, et al. Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children. Biol Psychiatry 1998, 43: 270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dawson G, Klinger LG, Panagiotides H, Lewy A, Castelloe P. Subgroups of autistic children based on social behavior display distinct patterns of brain activity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1995, 23: 569–583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang R, Jia MX, Zhang JS, Xu XJ, Shou XJ, Zhang XT, et al. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation in children with autism and its impact on plasma levels of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin: a prospective single-blinded controlled study. Res Dev Disabil 2012, 33: 1136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ecker C, Spooren W, Murphy D. Developing new pharmacotherapies for autism. J Intern Med 2013, 274: 308–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Odom S, Hume K, Boyd B, Stabel A. Moving beyond the intensive behavior treatment versus eclectic dichotomy: evidence-based and individualized programs for learners with ASD. Behav Modif 2012, 36: 270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schreibman L. Intensive behavioral/psychoeducational treatments for autism: Research needs and future directions. J Autism Dev Disord 2000, 30: 373.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Volkmar FR, Paul R, Rogers SJ, Pelphrey KA, Powers MD, Palmieri MJ, et al. Behavioral assessment of individuals with autism: current practice and future directions. In: Volkmar FR, Paul R, Rogers SJ, Pelphrey KA (Eds.). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Downs A, Smith T. Emotional understanding, cooperation, and social behavior in high-functioning children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2004, 34: 625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scheeren AM, Koot HM, Begeer S. Social interaction style of children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 2012, 42: 2046–2055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hoddenbach E, Koot HM, Clifford P, Gevers C, Clauser C, Boer F, et al. Individual differences in the efficacy of a short theory of mind intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012, 13: 206.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Candini M, Giuberti V, Manattini A, Grittani S, Di PG, Frassinetti F. Personal space regulation in childhood autism: Effects of social interaction and person’s perspective. Autism Res 2016, 10: 144–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Association AP. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, 2013.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rellini E, Tortolani D, Trillo S, Carbone S, Montecchi F. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) correspondence and conflicts with DSM-IV criteria in diagnosis of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2004, 34:703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine 2000, 25: 3186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rutter M, LeCouteur A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Newcastle University, 2003, 52: 345–349.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH Jr, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, et al. The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2000, 30: 205–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu Y, Fang J, Tian L, Jin H. Advanced Medical Statistics (2nd Edition). World Scientific, 2015.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Santos JRA. Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. J Ext 1999, 37.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bollen KA, Long JS. Testing Structural Equation Models. SAGE publications, Inc, 1993, 69: 66–67.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Downs A, Downs RC, Johansen M, Fossum M. Using discrete trial teaching within a public preschool program to facilitate skill development in students with developmental disabilities. Educ Treat Children 2007, 30: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    González-Calvo J, González VM, Lorig K. Cultural diversity issues in the development of valid and reliable measures of health status. Arthritis Care Res 1997, 10: 448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beglinger LJ, Smith TH. A review of subtyping in autism and proposed dimensional classification model. J Autism Dev Disord 2001, 31: 411–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taylor B. Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism. Child Care Health Dev 2006, 32: 511–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fan-Chao Meng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xin-Jie Xu
    • 5
  • Tian-Jia Song
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xiao-Jing Shou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Xiao-Li Wang
    • 6
  • Song-Ping Han
    • 7
  • Ji-Sheng Han
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rong Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Neuroscience Research InstitutePeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education of ChinaPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, National Committee of Health and Family Planning of ChinaPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.Central Laboratory, Research Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Scientific Research, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina
  6. 6.Division of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public HealthPeking University Health Science CenterBeijingChina
  7. 7.Wuxi Shenpingxintai Medical Technology Co., Ltd.WuxiChina

Personalised recommendations