Neuroscience Bulletin

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 270–282 | Cite as

Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer Technology Modulates Neuroinflammation in a Mouse Model of Neurodegeneration

  • Maria Antonietta Panaro
  • Alessandra Aloisi
  • Giuseppe Nicolardi
  • Dario Domenico Lofrumento
  • Francesco De Nuccio
  • Velia La Pesa
  • Antonia Cianciulli
  • Rosaria Rinaldi
  • Rosa Calvello
  • Vania Fontani
  • Salvatore Rinaldi
Original Article


In this study, the effects of Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), a non-invasive physical treatment, on neuroinflammatory responses in a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by intoxication with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), were investigated in vivo. We found that the REAC tissue optimization treatment specific for neuro-regenerative purposes (REAC TO-RGN-N) attenuated the inflammatory picture evoked by MPTP-induced nigro-striatal damage in mice, decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory molecules and increasing anti-inflammatory mediators. Besides, there was a significant reduction of both astrocyte and microglial activation in MPTP-treated mice exposed to REAC TO-RGN-N. These results indicated that REAC TO-RGN-N treatment modulates the pro-inflammatory responses and reduces neuronal damage in MPTP-induced parkinsonism.


Parkinson’s disease Neurodegeneration Neuroinflammation REAC TO-RGN-N treatment 



We are grateful to Mr. Diego Mangiullo for technical assistance in animal cage assembly. This work was partially supported by a Fondazione Umberto Veronesi 2011 grant to RR, by a grant from the University of Bari (Fondi di Ateneo 2014), and by a grant from the University of Salento (Fondi di Ateneo 2014).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Salvatore Rinaldi and Vania Fontani are the inventors of REAC technology. They are also founders of the company that produces REAC technology.


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Copyright information

© Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Antonietta Panaro
    • 1
  • Alessandra Aloisi
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Nicolardi
    • 3
  • Dario Domenico Lofrumento
    • 3
  • Francesco De Nuccio
    • 3
  • Velia La Pesa
    • 4
  • Antonia Cianciulli
    • 1
  • Rosaria Rinaldi
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Rosa Calvello
    • 1
  • Vania Fontani
    • 7
    • 8
  • Salvatore Rinaldi
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and BiopharmaceuticsUniversity of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.CNR Institute for Microelectronics and MicrosystemsLecceItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Section of Human AnatomyUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  4. 4.Neuropathology Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of NeuroscienceIRCCS San Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  5. 5.Department of Mathematics and PhysicsUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  6. 6.CNR Institute of Nanoscience NESTPisaItaly
  7. 7.Department of Regenerative MedicineRinaldi Fontani InstituteFlorenceItaly
  8. 8.Research DepartmentRinaldi Fontani FoundationFlorenceItaly
  9. 9.IRF (Shanghai) Medical SciencesShanghaiChina

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