Mapping Underlying Maturational Changes in Human Brain
Human brain development is a complex process that continues between birth and maturity, and monitoring the underlying maturational changes at these stages is crucial for our understanding of typical development as well as neurodevelopmental disorders. During the critical periods of brain development, on one hand, many human capacities originate, but on the other hand, a brain undergoing rapid plastic changes may also be vulnerable to neuropsychiatric disorders [1, 2, 3]. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used for its ability to noninvasively reveal structural and functional changes in the brain. However, interpretation of the neurobiological processes underlying the findings obtained with MRI is very limited [4, 5]. Recently, in a report in Science, Gomez et al. attempted to test if, during brain maturation, the macromolecular tissue of a hominoid-specific structure, i.e., face-selective regions in the fusiform gyrus, is pruned, proliferates, or...