Hyposmia: a possible biomarker of Parkinson’s disease
Hyposmia, identified as reduced sensitivity to odor, is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that antedates the typical motor symptoms by several years. It occurs in ∼90% of early-stage cases of PD. In addition to the high prevalence, the occurrence of hyposmia may also predict a higher risk of PD. Investigations into hyposmia and its relationship with PD may help elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This review provides an update of olfactory dysfunction in PD and its potential as a biomarker for this devastating disease.