Neuroscience Bulletin

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 47–54 | Cite as

Application study of quick cognitive screening test in identifying mild cognitive impairment

  • Qi-Hao Guo (郭起浩)Email author
  • Xin-Yi Cao (曹歆轶)
  • Yan Zhou (周燕)
  • Qian-Hua Zhao (赵倩华)
  • Ding Ding (丁玎)
  • Zhen Hong (洪震)
Original Article



To assess whether quick cognitive screening test (QCST) could quickly identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI).


QCST and a full set of standardized neuropsychological tests, including mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) were performed. A total number of 121 cases of MCI [41 cases of amnestic MCI-single domain (aMCI-s); 44 of amnestic MCI-multiple domain (aMCI-m); 36 of nonamnestic MCI (naMCI)], 79 cases of mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 186 healthy elderly volunteers were employed in the present study. All the participants (55–85 years old) had an educational level no less than 5 years. QCST subtests included word list recall, naming test, animal fluency test, similarity test, color trail-1min, clock drawing test, finger construction test, and digit span test. The total score of QCST was 90 points, 10 points for each index of subtests.


The total scores of QCST in MCI, AD and the control groups were (58.13±8.18), (44.53±10.54) and (72.92±6.85) points, respectively. According to the educational level, the cut off scores of participants with an educational level of 5–8 years, 9–12 years and more than 13 years were 63, 65 and 68 points, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of QCST in detection of MCI were 87.6% (85.7% for aMCI-s, 90.1% for aMCI-m and 89.5% for naMCI) and 84.3%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.923 (95% CI: 0.892–0.953). Delayed memory, color trail-1min and similarity test could help distinguish between aMCI and naMCI.


QCST may have a good sensitivity and specificity for MCI detection, which warrants its further clinical application.


mild cognitive impairment Alzheimer’s disease neuropsychological test cognition 




轻度认知损害(mild cognitive impairment, MCI)可根据认知表现分为遗忘型 MCI (aMCI)和非遗忘型MCI(naMCI)。 本研究旨在编制快速认知筛查测验(quick cognitive screening test, QCST)便于快速全面地识别MCI, 为进一步研究提供依据。


符合 MCI 操作性诊断标准的MCI 组121 例、 符合DSM-IV有关痴呆诊断标准的阿尔茨海默病(AD)组79 例和正常老年人组186 例, 参与了QCST 和标准化全套神经心理测验。 参与者教育程度均在5 年或以上, 年龄55–85 岁。 QCST 项目包括即刻记忆、 延迟回忆、 命名、 动物流畅性、 相似性、 彩色连线B、 画钟、 手指结构、 数字广度等9 个分测验, 每个分测验满分10 分, 总分90 分, 耗时10–15 分钟。


MCI 组、 AD组和正常老年人组QCST总分分别为(58.13±8.18)、 (44.53±10.54)和(72.92±6.85)分。 制定教育程度在5–8年、 9–12 年、 高于13 年3 个组别的QCST 总分的划界分分别为63、 65 和68 分。 QCST 识别 MCI 的敏感性为87.6%, 其中识别aMCI-s、 aMCI-m 和naMCI 的敏感性分别为85.7%、 90.1% 和89.5%, 特异性均为84.3%。 曲线下面积为0.923 (95% CI: 0.892–0.953)。 延迟回忆、 连线和相似性均有助于区分aMCI 与naMCI。


QCST 对MCI 具有较高的敏感性和特异性, 可在临床和流行病学调查方面进行推广应用。


轻度认知损害 阿尔茨海默病 神经心理测验 认知 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol 1999, 56(3): 303–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Winblad B, Palmer K, Kivipelto M, Jelic V, Fratiglioni L, Wahlund LO, et al. Mild cognitive impairment-beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. J Intern Med 2004, 256: 240–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Portet F, Ousset PJ, Visser PJ, Frisoni GB, Nobili F, Scheltens P, et al. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in medical practice: a critical review of the concept and new diagnostic procedure. Report of the MCI Working Group of the European Consortium on Alzheimer’s Disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006, 77(6):714–718.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Jungwirth S, Weissgram S, Zehetmayer S, Tragl KH, Fischer P. VITA: subtypes of mild cognitive impairment in a communitybased cohort at the age of 75 years. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005, 20(5): 452–458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Fischer P, Jungwirth S, Zehetmayer S, Weissgram S, Hoenigschnabl S, Gelpi E, et al. Conversion from subtypes of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer dementia. Neurology 2007, 68: 288–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Busse A, Hensel A, Gühne U, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG. Mild cognitive impairment: long-term course of four clinical subtypes. Neurology 2006, 67(12): 2176–2185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 2004, 256(3): 183–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Molloy DW, Standish TI, Lewis DL. Screening for mild cognitive impairment: comparing the SMMSE and the ABCS. Can J Psychiatry 2005, 50(1): 52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Rami L, Molinuevo JL, Sanchez-Valle R, Bosch B, Villar A. Screening for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease with M@T (Memory Alteration Test) in the primary care population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007, 22(4): 294–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Flaks MK, Yassuda MS, Regina AC, Cid CG, Camargo CH, Gattaz WF, et al. The Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT): a preliminary study of its psychometric properties in Brazil. Int Psychogeriatr 2006, 18(1): 121–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, B’edirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005, 53(4): 695–699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Tang-Wai DF, Knopman DS, Geda YE, Edland SD, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, et al. Comparison of the short test of mental status and the mini-mental state examination in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2003, 60(12): 1777–1781.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Roth M, Tym E, Mountjoy CQ, Huppert FA, Hendrie H, Verma S, et al. CAMDEX: A standardized instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorders in the elderly with special reference to early detection of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1986, 149: 698–709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Nunes PV, Diniz BS, Radanovic M, Abreu ID, Borelli DT, Yassuda MS, et al. CAMcog as a screening tool for diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a Brazilian clinical sample of moderate to high education. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008, 23(11): 1127–1133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Kalbe E, Kessler J, Calabrese P, Hilker R, Riedel O, Wittchen HU, et al. DemTect: A new, sensitive cognitive screening test to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004, 19: 136–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Solomon PR, Hirschoff A, Kelly B, Relin M, Brush M, DeVeaux RD, et al. A 7 minute neurocognitive screening battery highly sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1998, 55: 349–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A, Mohs RC, Morris JC, Rabins PV, et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2001, 58(12): 1985–1992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Guo QH, Zhao Q, Chen M, Ding D, Hong Z. A comparison study on mild cognitive impairment with 3 memory tests among Chinese individuals. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2009, 23(3): 253–259.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Katzman RC, Zhanga YM, Qua OY, Wang ZY, Liu WT, Yu E, et al. A Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination; Impact of illiteracy in a Shanghai dementia survey. J Clin Epidemiol 1988, 41(10): 971–978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Diagnostic and statistical mannual of mental disorders. 4th Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984, 34: 939–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Guo QH, Hong Z, Shi WX, Lu CZ. Boston naming test using by Chinese elderly, patient with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s dementia. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2006, 20(2): 81–85.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Zhao QH, Guo QH, Shi WX, Hong Z. Category verbal fluency test in identification and differential diagnosis of dementia. Chin J Clin Psychol 2007, 3: 241–245.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Lin KN, Wang PN, Liu CY, Chen WT, Lee YC, Liu HC. Cutoff scores of the cognitive abilities screening instrument, Chinese version in screening of dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2002, 14: 176–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Lee TM, Chan CC. Are trail making and color trails tests of equivalent constructs? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2000, 22(4): 529–534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Guo QH, Fu JH, Yuan J, Zhao Q, Cao XY, Hong Z. A study of validity of a new scoring system of clock drawing test. Chin J Neurol 2008, 41(4): 234–237.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Gong YX. Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC). Hunan Maping Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Guo QH, Hong Z, Lu CZ. Clinical validity of the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale in differentiating dementia of Alzheimer type in Shanghai. Chin J Clin Psychol 2004, 12(3): 237–243.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, B’edirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005, 53(4): 695–699.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Yu H, Guo QH, Hong Z, Lu CZ. Detecting of logical memory impairment in mild Alzheimer’s disease. Nerv Dis Ment Hyg 2005, 5(2): 89–91.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Guo QH, Lv CZ, Hong Z, Lu CZ. Application of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test in Chinese normal old people. Chin J Clin Psychol 2000, 8(4): 205–207.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Guo QH, Sun YM, Yuan J, Hong Z, Lu CZ. Application of eight executive tests in participants at Shanghai communities. Chin J Behavioral Med Sci 2007, 16(7): 628–631.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Perneczky R, Pohl C, Sorg C, Hartmann J, Komossa K, Alexopoulos P, et al. Complex activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment: conceptual and diagnostic issues. Age Ageing 2006, 35(3): 240–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Morris JC. The clinical dementia rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993, 43(11): 2412–2414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Bozoki A, Giordani B, Heidebrink JL, Berent S, Foster NL. Mild cognitive impairments predicts dementia in nondemented elderly patients with memory loss. Arch Neurol 2001, 58: 411–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qi-Hao Guo (郭起浩)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xin-Yi Cao (曹歆轶)
    • 1
  • Yan Zhou (周燕)
    • 1
  • Qian-Hua Zhao (赵倩华)
    • 1
  • Ding Ding (丁玎)
    • 1
  • Zhen Hong (洪震)
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical NeurobiologyShanghai Medical College, Fudan UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations