A General Overview of Incidence, Associated Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Surgical Site Infections

  • Faiz Ullah Khan
  • Zakir Khan
  • Naveed Ahmed
  • Asim.ur. RehmanEmail author
Review Article


Globally, every year, millions of surgical procedures are carried out and most of the patients experience surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery. This general overview is aimed to find SSI incidence, risk factors, and treatment-related factors in the current scenario of literature searched. Articles from scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were searched and extracted with keywords SSI’, surgery’, surgical infection’, wound infection’, Risk factors SSI’, Antibiotics, and Treatment. The incidence rate of SSIs is on rise in developing countries due to limited reporting which is alarming for patient safety. Various surgery-related guidelines might be helpful in the reduction of SSI incidence. A full assessment of patients before surgery are needed through various available parameters; especially, rational use of antibiotics may minimize the risk of misuse. Healthcare-associated infections need much attention and awareness as the situation is much alarming.


SSI Risk factors Antibiotics Surgery 



We acknowledge all the contributors who supported us in this review especially Professor Yu Fang, School of Pharmacy, Xian Jiaotong University, China; Shahab Uddin, Lanzhou University, China; and Dr. Inayat Ur Rehman, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faiz Ullah Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zakir Khan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Naveed Ahmed
    • 1
  • Asim.ur. Rehman
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PharmacyQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Health Science CenterXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health SciencesCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

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