Advertisement

The Incidence of Agenesis of Palmaris Longus Muscle Among Multiracial Medical Students of University Malaya, Malaysia

  • Normadiah M Kassim
  • Intan Suhana Zulkafli
  • Rasheeda Mohd Zamin
  • Muhammad Amri Salim
  • Mahmoud Danaee
  • Siti Rosmani Md ZinEmail author
Original Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Palmaris longus (PL) is the most superficial flexor muscle of the wrist. Agenesis of this muscle does not result in disability but its presence plays a significant role in reconstructive plastic surgery as a donor tendon for grafting. The awareness of the incidence of PL occurrence in a population is therefore desirable. In the present study, 457 multiracial medical students (220 Malays, 198 Chinese and 39 Indians) of University of Malaya, Malaysia, ages between 18 to 22 years, were examined for the presence or absence of the PL tendon using Schaeffer’s test. This study demonstrated the overall difference in occurrence rate of PL among the multiracial students which indirectly represent its overall pattern in Malaysian population, as the students originate from various states of this country. The data collected were then analyzed using non-parametric test to determine pattern of occurrence and incidence of agenesis of this muscle with regard to ethnicity, laterality, and gender. The highest incidence of unilateral and bilateral PL agenesis was observed in Indian students despite being the smallest race among the three groups studied. This study contradicts with previous findings that concluded Malays to be the group with the highest incidence of unilateral PL agenesis. This contradiction therefore justifies the need to construct a larger cohort study, which covers more diverse ethnic groups in Malaysia including the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak to obtain the true incidence rate of PL agenesis in Malaysia.

Keywords

Surgery Anatomy Palmaris longus Upper limb Tendon 

Notes

Authors’ Contribution

The study conception and design were contributed by Normadiah M Kassim and Siti Rosmani Md Zin. Material preparation and data collection were performed by Siti Rosmani Md Zin, Intan Suhana Zulkafli, Rasheeda Mohd Zamin, and Muhammad Amri Salim. The data was analyzed by Intan Suhana Zulkafli and Mahmoud Danaee. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Siti Rosmani Md Zin, Intan Suhana Zulkafli, and Rasheeda Mohd Zamin. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Jeyaseelan N, Lin WM, Kadir SYA, Brandon GJF, Azizi AB, Kalaji SM, Singh HST, Ramaiah Y, Retnabrabagaran SP (2015) Variations in the absence of the palmaris longus muscle in a multiethnic population of Malaysia: an epidemiological study. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 14(10):2279–2861.  https://doi.org/10.9790/0853-14104117122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AM (2013) Clinically oriented anatomy. Lippincott Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Snell RS (2011) Clinical anatomy by regions. Lippincott Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Enye L, Saalu L, Osinubi A (2010) The prevalence of agenesis of Palmaris longus muscle among students in two Lagos-Based Medical schools. Int J Morphol 28(3):849–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nasiri E, Pourghasem M, Moladoust H (2016) The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus muscle tendon in the North of Iran: a comparative study. Iran Red Crescent Med J 18(3)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ioannis D, Anastasios K, Konstantinos N, Lazaros K, Georgios N (2015) Palmaris longus muscle’s prevalence in different nations and interesting anatomical variations: review of the literature. J Clin Med Res 7(11):825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sebastin S, Puhaindran M, Lim A, Lim I, Bee W (2005) The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus–a study in a Chinese population and a review of the literature. J Hand Surg 30(5):525–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Soltani AM, Peric M, Francis CS, Nguyen T-TJ, Chan LS, Ghiassi A, Stevanovic MV, Wong AK (2012) The variation in the absence of the palmaris longus in a multiethnic population of the United States: an epidemiological study Plast Surg Int:2012Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hussain FN, Hasan T (2012) Prevalence of congenital absence of palmaris longus tendon in young Jizani population of Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study. Pakistan J Med SciGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sankar KD, Bhanu PS, John SP (2011) Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India. Indian J Plast Surg: Off Publ Assoc Plast Surg India 44(1):134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thompson N, Mockford B, Cran G (2001) Absence of the palmaris longus muscle: a population study. Ulst Med J 70(1):22Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roohi S, Choon-Sian L, Tan G, Naicker A, Med Rehab M (2007) A study on the absence of palmaris longus in a multiracial population. Malays Orthop J 1(1):26–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yong MW, Yusof N, Rampal L, Arumugam M (2017) Prevalence of absence of palmaris longus and its association with gender, hand dominance and absence of FDS tendon to little finger among malay population. J Hand Surg (Asian-Pacific Volume) 22(04):484–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pękala PA, Henry BM, Pękala JR, Skinningsrud B, Walocha JA, Bonczar M, Tomaszewski KA (2017) Congenital absence of the palmaris longus muscle: a meta-analysis comparing cadaveric and functional studies. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 70(12):1715–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thompson J, McBatts J, Danforth CH (1921) Hereditary and racial variation in the musculus palmaris longus. Am J Phys Anthropol 4(2):205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wehbe MA (1992) Tendon graft donor sites. J Hand surg 17(6):1130–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thidar AM, Myint TT, Naing DKS, Mustapha ZA (2013) Palmaris longus agenesis (PLA) among Dusun & Bajau ethnic groups of Northern Borneo. Int J Collab Res Intern Med Public Health 5(6):386Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fowlie C, Fuller C, Pratten MK (2012) Assessment of the presence/absence of the palmaris longus muscle in different sports, and elite and non-elite sport populations. Physiotherapy 98(2):138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sater MS, Dharap AS, Abu-Hijleh MF (2010) The prevalence of absence of the palmaris longus muscle in the Bahraini population. Clin Anat 23(8):956–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zeybek A, Gürünlüoglu R, Çavdar S, Bayramiçli M (1998) A clinical reminder: a palmaris longus muscle variation. Ann Plast Surg 41(2):224–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Getzmann JM, Schweizer A (2018) Surgical resection of a reversed palmaris longus muscle causing chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a competitive swimmer: a case report. Orthop J Sports Med 6(5):2325967118769615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mugalur A, Shahane SM, Samant A, Pathak AC, Patil A, Reddy R (2015) Anatomic variation of palmaris longus and flexor digitorum superficialis of little finger in Indian population. SICOT-J 1Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Venter G, Van Schoor A-N, Bosman MC (2014) Degenerative trends of the palmaris longus muscle in a South African population. Clin Anat 27(2):222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malaysia DoS (2018) Population and demography. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cone&menu_id=Nk1JZnJBMm1TdmRFS0xaTXZnanIrQT09. Accessed 13th September 2018 2018
  25. 25.
    Agarwal P (2010) Absence of the palmaris longus tendon in Indian population. Indian J Orthop 44(2):212–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Capdarest-Arest N, Gonzalez JP, Türker T (2014) Hypotheses for ongoing evolution of muscles of the upper extremity. Med Hypotheses 82(4):452–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Iqbal S, Iqbal R, Iqbal F (2015) A bitendinous palmaris longus: aberrant insertions and its clinical impact-a case report. J Clin Diagn Res 9(5):AD03–AD05PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bosch T, Hanna T, Fercho K, Baugh L (2018) Behavioral performance and visual strategies during skill acquisition using a novel tool use motor learning task. Sci Rep 8(1):13755CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Normadiah M Kassim
    • 1
  • Intan Suhana Zulkafli
    • 1
  • Rasheeda Mohd Zamin
    • 1
  • Muhammad Amri Salim
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Danaee
    • 2
  • Siti Rosmani Md Zin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations