The Incidence of Agenesis of Palmaris Longus Muscle Among Multiracial Medical Students of University Malaya, Malaysia

  • Normadiah M Kassim
  • Intan Suhana Zulkafli
  • Rasheeda Mohd Zamin
  • Muhammad Amri Salim
  • Mahmoud Danaee
  • Siti Rosmani Md ZinEmail author
Original Article


Palmaris longus (PL) is the most superficial flexor muscle of the wrist. Agenesis of this muscle does not result in disability but its presence plays a significant role in reconstructive plastic surgery as a donor tendon for grafting. The awareness of the incidence of PL occurrence in a population is therefore desirable. In the present study, 457 multiracial medical students (220 Malays, 198 Chinese and 39 Indians) of University of Malaya, Malaysia, ages between 18 to 22 years, were examined for the presence or absence of the PL tendon using Schaeffer’s test. This study demonstrated the overall difference in occurrence rate of PL among the multiracial students which indirectly represent its overall pattern in Malaysian population, as the students originate from various states of this country. The data collected were then analyzed using non-parametric test to determine pattern of occurrence and incidence of agenesis of this muscle with regard to ethnicity, laterality, and gender. The highest incidence of unilateral and bilateral PL agenesis was observed in Indian students despite being the smallest race among the three groups studied. This study contradicts with previous findings that concluded Malays to be the group with the highest incidence of unilateral PL agenesis. This contradiction therefore justifies the need to construct a larger cohort study, which covers more diverse ethnic groups in Malaysia including the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak to obtain the true incidence rate of PL agenesis in Malaysia.


Surgery Anatomy Palmaris longus Upper limb Tendon 


Authors’ Contribution

The study conception and design were contributed by Normadiah M Kassim and Siti Rosmani Md Zin. Material preparation and data collection were performed by Siti Rosmani Md Zin, Intan Suhana Zulkafli, Rasheeda Mohd Zamin, and Muhammad Amri Salim. The data was analyzed by Intan Suhana Zulkafli and Mahmoud Danaee. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Siti Rosmani Md Zin, Intan Suhana Zulkafli, and Rasheeda Mohd Zamin. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Normadiah M Kassim
    • 1
  • Intan Suhana Zulkafli
    • 1
  • Rasheeda Mohd Zamin
    • 1
  • Muhammad Amri Salim
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Danaee
    • 2
  • Siti Rosmani Md Zin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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