Indian Journal of Surgery

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 445–451 | Cite as

Global Landscape of Endocrine Surgery Training Programmes and the Impact of a Structured Residency Programme in India in Development of This Subspecialty

  • Sanjay Kumar Yadav
  • Saroj Kanta MishraEmail author
Original Article


This study examines the progressive development of endocrine surgery training programmes around the globe and its impact on development of this subspecialty. A survey of all currently existing endocrine surgery fellowships, English literature on endocrine surgery training programmes, personal communications and official websites of endocrine surgery professional bodies was done and data was analyzed. Globally, 75 fellowship positions could be identified which is a significant growth from 2000 when only 23 positions were available. In the past 6 years, the number of positions has increased by 100% worldwide and 350% in India and number of endocrine surgeons by 47%. India has shown very rapid growth in the development of this specialty, both in quantity and quality. Since the inception of the first academic endocrine surgery department at SGPGIMS Lucknow in 1987 to current eight academic departments in the country, 440 original articles were identified to have been published on thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal from India between 1975 and 2016, 57% being published in the last decade. Endocrine surgeons contributed most number (52%) of endocrine surgery publications as compared to surgical oncologists, ENT surgeons and general surgeons. When we exclude thyroid from the list, then 86% publications are authored by endocrine surgeons. Significant variation is found in the case of distribution of fellowships and fellows worldwide with a relative paucity in developing countries. Over three-quarters of countries do not have access to endocrine surgery training programme. The findings will influence promotion of new professional bodies, training programmes and workforce distribution.


Endocrine surgery Super-specialty training Structured residency Surgical education 


Author Contributions

This is to declare that all authors have contributed to the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

No part of the manuscript has been sent for consideration elsewhere or published in any international or national journal. The authors clearly certify that there is no aspect of plagiarism. Due ethical permission/consent has been obtained for carrying out the study. In case of any dispute, the authors will be held fully responsible for the statement disclosed in the cover letter. The authors are also aware of the copyright rules and also declare that they will not reproduce any published text without due permission from the journal.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrine SurgerySGPGIMSLucknowIndia

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