Indian Journal of Surgery

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 200–203 | Cite as

Large Animal-Related Injuries in a Rural Population in Northeastern Turkey

  • Kasim Caglayan
  • Atilla Celik
  • Omer Faruk Ozkan
  • Aysun Simsek Celik
  • Neset Koksal
  • Ediz Altinli
Original Article


Animal-related injury is a serious health problem for people living in rural areas. This type of injury could be of great consequence and life-threatening. There are insufficient data regarding this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the causes and treatment outcomes of large animal injuries. We reviewed the medical records of 157 patients with large animal-related injuries in a State Hospital in Northeastern Turkey, between September 2004 and April 2007. Demographic and etiological characteristics of patients and injury and outcome data were analyzed. A total of 157 patients were included in the study. One hundred and thirty-two (84.1 %) of them were male and 25 (15.9 %) female. The mean age of patients was 29.1 years (range 3–83 years). One hundred and twelve patients (71.3 %) had horse-related injuries and 45 patients (28.7 %) had bovine-related injuries (P = 0.096). Twenty-one (13.4 %) patients were referred to a tertiary center due to their need for intensive care, whereas 1 (0.6 %) patient died. Large animal-related injuries constitute an important health problem for people living in rural areas. This type of injury could be serious and mortality could be observed.


Large animal injuries Public health Rural areas 



The authors thank Dr. Ilhan GUNAYDIN for his comments.

Conflıct of ınterests statement

We do not declare any conflict of interests’ statement.


  1. 1.
    Ok E, Küçük C, Deneme MA, Yılmaz Z, Sözüer EM (2004) Large animal-related abdominal injuries. J Trauma 57(4):877–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Rasouli MR, Saadat S, Haddadi M, Gooya MM, Afsari M, Movaghar VR (2011) Epidemiology of injuries and poisonings in emergency departments in Iran. Public Health 125(10):727–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hendricks KJ, Adekoya N (2001) Non-fatal animal related injuries to youth occurring on farms in the United States, 1998. Inj Prev 7:307–311PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Erkal S, Gerberich SG, Ryan AD, Renier CM, Alexander BH (2008) Animal-related injuries: a population-based study of a five-state region in the upper midwest: regional rural injury study II. J Safety Res 39:351–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johns E, Farrant G, Civil I (2004) Animal-related injury in an Urban New Zealand population. Injury Int J Care Injured 34:1234–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Temes RT, White JH, Ketai LH et al (1997) Head, face, and neck trauma from large animal injury in New Mexico. J Trauma 43:492–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brett AU, Eric JD, Louis DH, Bryce P (2004) Patterns of maxillofacial injuries related to interaction with horses. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62:693–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Watts M, Meisel EM (2011) Cattle associated trauma—a one year prospective study of all injuries. Injury 42(10):1084–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kousuke I, Takuro W, Satoshi K et al (2001) Horse-related injuries in a thoroughbred stabling area in Japan. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 121:501–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Norwood S, McAuley C, Vallina VL et al (2000) Mechanisms and patterns of injuries related to large animals. J Trauma 48:740–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ugboko VI, Olasoji HO, Ajike SO, Amole AOD, Ogundipe OT (2002) Facial injuries caused by animals in Northern Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 40:433–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yıldız M, Durukan P (2006) Hayvanlara bağlı yaralanmalar. Fırat Tıp Dergisi 10(1):24–26Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moini M, Peyvandi AA, Rasouli MR, Khaji A, Kakavand M, Eghbal P, Peyvandi H, Molavi B (2011) Pattern of animal-related injuries in Iran. Acta Med Iran 49(3):163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shahan CP, Emmett K, Zarzaur BL (2011) Large animal-related injury requiring hospital admission: injury pattern disparities injury. May 9. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang QB, Zhang B, Zhang ZQ, Chen Q (2011) The epidemiology of cranio-facial injuries caused by animals in southern-central China. J Craniomaxillofac Surg Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nogalski A, Jankiewicz L, Cwik G, Karski J, Matuszewski L (2007) Animal-related injuries treated at the department of trauma and emergency medicine, medical university of Lublin. Ann Agric Environ Med 14(1):57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shahan P, Zarzaur B, Emmett K (2010) Demographics and injury patterns of large animal-related injury admissions in the United States. J Surg Res 158(2):283–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Surgeons of India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kasim Caglayan
    • 1
  • Atilla Celik
    • 2
  • Omer Faruk Ozkan
    • 3
  • Aysun Simsek Celik
    • 4
  • Neset Koksal
    • 5
  • Ediz Altinli
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of General Surgery, Faculty of MedicineBozok UniversityYozgatTurkey
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryBagcilar Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of General SurgeryTrabzon Numune Training and Research HospitalTrabzonTurkey
  4. 4.Department of General SurgeryHaydarpasa Numune Training and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Department of General Surgery, Faculty of MedicineKafkas UniversityKarsTurkey

Personalised recommendations