Improvement in the Reproducibility of a Paper-based Analytical Device (PAD) Using Stable Covalent Binding between Proteins and Cellulose Paper
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Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) have been widely used in many fields because they are affordable and portable. For reproducible quantitative analysis, it is crucial to strongly immobilize proteins on PADs. Conventional techniques for immobilizing proteins on PADs are based on physical adsorption, but proteins can be easily removed by weak physical forces. Therefore, it is difficult to ensure the reproducibility of the analytical results of PADs using physical adsorption. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we showed a method of covalent binding of proteins to cellulose paper. This method consists of three steps, which include periodate oxidation of paper, the formation of a Schiff base, and reductive amination. We identified aldehyde and imine groups formed on paper using FT-IR analysis. This covalent bonding approach enhanced the binding force and binding capacity of proteins. We confirmed the activity of an immobilized antibody through a sandwich immunoassay. We expect that this immobilization method will contribute to the commercialization of PADs with high reproducibility and sensitivity.
Keywordscellulose immobilization periodate oxidation covalent binding protein
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