The Extract of Ramalina litoralis Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation
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Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder that increases the risk of fractures of bone. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) signaling ultimately activates nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), a major transcription factor for osteoclast formation. Lichens are symbiotic organisms composed of fungi and algae partners, which are known to be rich repositories of natural metabolites. There was few investigational study on the effect of lichen substances for osteoporosis treatment. This study conducted to elucidate anti-osteoporosis effects of Ramalina litoralis, one of the common saxicolous lichens distributed in the coastal area of Korean Peninsula. In this study, we examined the effects of Ramalina litoralis extract on the osteoclast in osteoporosis. We studied the inhibition of genes and proteins associated with the inhibition of osteoclast by extracts, and the resorptive pit assay for osteoclast function. The extract of Ramalina litoralis reduced the levels of mRNA expression of NFATc1, osteoclast-related receptor (OSCAR), cathepsin K and tartaric acid-resistant phosphatase (TRAP). It also inhibited the translational expression of NFATc1, a major protein in osteoporosis. The inhibitory effect of extracts of Ramalina litoralis on osteoclast differentiation was confirmed using resorptive pit analysis. The extract of Ramalina litoralis inhibited the expression level of NFATcl through the RANKL signaling pathway. This study demonstrates the anti-osteoclastic effect of Ramalina litoralis extract, which can be applied for the effective treatment of osteoporosis, and will serve as an important candidate for making therapeutic agents.
Keywordsosteoporosis osteoclast lichens Ramalina litoralis
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