Advertisement

Protective effect of GABA-enriched fermented sea tangle against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

  • Young-Mi Kang
  • Zhong-Ji Qian
  • Bae-Jin Lee
  • Young-Mog KimEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid)-enriched sea tangle juice (STJ) by Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20 fermentation against alcohol hepatotoxicity. The protective effects were determined by assessing glutathione (GSH) content levels and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In ethanol-treated cells, GSH content decreased to 44.35% of control (ethanol-untreated cell) values; however, treatment with fermented sea tangle juice (FSTJ) at a concentration of 25 μg/mL increased GSH levels to 67.08%.These results suggest that FSTJ may prevent intracellular GSH depletion caused by ethanol consumption. Treatment with FSTJ against alcohol-injured HepG2 cells resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GGT activity. The expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme, a major contributor to ethanol-induced oxidative stress, was also completely inhibited in FSTJ-treated cells at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that ethanolinduced cytotoxicity could be attenuated by inhibition of GSH depletion, GGT activity, and CYP2E1 expression.

Keywords

alcohol hepatocytotoxicity gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase fermented sea tangle juice HepG2 cells 

References

  1. 1.
    Albano, E. (2006) Alcohol, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Proc. Nutr. Sco. 65: 278–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dey, A. and A. I. Cederbaum (2006) Alcohol and oxidative liver injury. Hepatology 43: 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjorneboe, A. and G. E. Bjorneboe (1993) Antioxidant status and alcohol-related diseases. Alcohol Alcohol. 28: 111–116.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koch, O. R., G. Pani, S. Borrello, R. Colavitti, A. Cravero, S. Farre, and T. Galeotti (2004) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in ethanol-induced cell injury. Mol. Aspects Med. 25: 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banciu, T., H. Weidenfeld, E. Marcoane, and L. Berinde (1983) Serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase assay in the detection of alcohol consumers and in the early and stadial diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Med. Interne. 21: 23–29.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitfield, J. B. (2001) Gamma glutamyl transferase. Crit. Rev.Clin. Lab. Sci. 38: 263–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang, H., H. J. Forman, and J. Choi (2005) Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in glutathione biosynthesis. Methods Enzymol. 401: 468–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Misslbeck, N. G., T. C. Campbell, and D. A. Roe (1986) Increase in hepatic gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity following chronic ethanol intake in combination with a high fat diet. Biochem.Pharmacol. 35: 399–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guengerich, F. P. (1993) Cytochrome P450 enzyme. Am. Sci. 81: 440–447.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cho, M. K., Y. G. Kim, M. G. Lee, and S. G. Kim (1999) Suppression of rat hepatic Cytochrome P450s by protein-calorie malnutrition: complete or partial restoration by cysteine or methionine supplementation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 372: 150–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu, Y. and A. I. Cederbaum (2008) CYP2E1 and oxidative liver injury by alcohol. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44: 723–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, B. J., J. S. Kim, Y. M. Kang, J. H. Lim, Y. M. Kim, M. S. Lee, M. H. Jeong, C. B. Ahn, and J. Y. Je (2010) Antioxidant activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in sea tangle fermented by Lactobacillus brevis BJ20 isolated from traditional fermented foods. Food Chem. 122: 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cho, Y. R., J. Y. Chang, and H. C. Chang (2007) Production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus buchneri isolated from kimchi and its neuroprotective effect on neuronal cells. J.Microbiol. Biotechnol. 17: 104–109.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Inoue, K., T. Shirai, H. Ochiai, M. Kasao, K. Hayakawa, M. Kimura, and H. Sansawa (2003) Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57: 490–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kang, Y. M., B. J. Lee, and J. S. Kim (2010) Alcohol metabolizing activity of fermented sea tangle juice. Kor. J. Fish. Aquat.Sci. 43: 1–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, B. J., M. Senevirathne, J. S. Kim, Y. M. Kim, M. S. Lee, M.H. Jeong, Y. M. Kang, J. I. Kim, B. H. Nam, C. B. Ahn, and J. Y. Je (2010) Protective effect of fermented sea tangle against ethanol and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: 1123–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garcia-Ruz, C., A. Morales, A. Colell, A. Ballesta, J. Rodes, N. Kaplowitz, and J. C. Fermandez-Checa (1995) Feeding S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates both ethanol-induced depletion of mitochondrial glutathione and mitochondrial dysfunction in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. Hepatology 21: 207–214.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, X., C. K. Sun, G. S. Han, J. Y. Peng, Y. Li, Y. X. Liu, Y. Y. Lv, K. X. Liu, Q. Zhou, and H. J. Sun (2009) Protective effect of tea polyphenols against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is significantly correlated with Cytochrome P450 suppression.World J. Gastroenterol. 15: 1829–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Femandez-Checa, J. C., N. Kaplowitz, C. Garcia-Ruiz, A. Colell, M. Miranda, M. Mari, E. Ardite, and A. Morales (1997) GSH transport in mitochondria: defense against TNF-α induced oxidative stress and alcohol-induced defect. Am. J. Physiol. 273: 7–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young-Mi Kang
    • 1
  • Zhong-Ji Qian
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bae-Jin Lee
    • 1
  • Young-Mog Kim
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Marine Bioprocess Co., Ltd.BusanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Marine Life Science and Marine Life Research & Education CenterChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  3. 3.Department of Marine Life Science and Marine Life Research & Education CenterChosun UniversityWandoKorea
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and TechnologyPukyong National UniversityBusanKorea

Personalised recommendations