Advertisement

Expression of microRNA-150 and its Target Gene IGF2BP1 in Human Osteosarcoma and their Clinical Implications

  • Lei Wang
  • Ailixiati Aireti
  • Aizezi Aihaiti
  • Kun Li
Open Access
Original Article

Abstract

Previous study revealed that microRNA (miR)-150 might function as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma partially by targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 mRNA-Binding Protein 1 (IGF2BP1). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis in human osteosarcoma which remains unclear. At first, expression levels of miR-150, and IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein in 20 osteosarcoma and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were respectively detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses. Then, subcellular localization and expression pattern of IGF2BP1 protein in 100 osteosarcoma tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. Associations of miR-150/IGF2BP1 expression with various clinicopathological features and patients’ prognosis were also statistically evaluated. As a result, miR-150 expression was significantly decreased, while IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression were dramatically increased in osteosarcoma tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous tissues (all P < 0.001). Immunostaining of IGF2BP1 protein was localized in cytoplasm of tumor cells in osteosarcoma tissues. Statistically, low miR-150 expression and/or high IGF2BP1 protein immunoreactive score were all significantly associated with high tumor grade, presence of metastasis and recurrence, as well as poor response to chemotherapy (all P < 0.05). Moreover, miR-150, IGF2BP1 and combined miR-150/IGF2BP1 expressions were all identified as independent prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survivals of osteosarcoma patients (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-150 and its downstream target IGF2BP1 may be a crucial axis for the development, progression and patients’ prognosis of ostesarcoma. The newly identified miR-150/IGF2BP1 axis might be a novel potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment.

Keywords

Osteosarcoma microRNA-150 Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 Clinicopathological feature Overall survival Disease-free survival 

Introduction

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone tumor among children, adolescents, and young adults worldwide, representing a leading cause of cancer-related death [1]. This malignancy is predominantly occurring around regions with active bone growth and repair, and its incidence rate is increasing [2]. Owing to the recent advances in therapeutic strategies for osteosarcoma, such as wide tumor excision, neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the patients’ clinical outcome and long-term survival rates have been improved distinctly [3]. However, approximately one-third of osteosarcoma patients survive for less than 5 years and the propensity of osteosarcoma cells to disseminate to the lung is the major cause of death of this tumor [4]. Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to understand the molecular basis of osteosarcoma development and metastasis, in order to discover new therapeutic targets and develop more efficient therapies.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) with 18–25 nucleotides in length are a class of endogenously expressed small non-coding single stranded RNAs in the human body [5]. miRNAs are involved into various biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism and maturation, as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion and metastasis, via regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally either by degradating the targeting protein-coding RNAs or by inhibiting their translation into protein [6, 7, 8]. Accumulating studies have identified aberrant miRNA expression profiles in various human tumors, and revealed their potential roles in numerous aspects of tumorigenesis and tumor progression [9, 10]. miR-150 was originally identified as a hematopoietic cell-specific miRNA which plays a critical role in normal hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies by affecting the differentiation of numerous hematopoietic cell lineages [11]. Recently, a large number of studies have observed the abnormal expression of miR-150 in various types of human tumors, and revealed that miR-150 may function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor depending on the action of its target genes in certain tumor types [12]. Especially in osteosarcoma, Li et al. [13] in 2015 reported that miR-150 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, while stimulated cell apoptosis in osteosarcoma; Zhan et al. [14] in 2016 indicated that miR-150 upregulation could reduce osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis; Wang et al. [15] found that miR-150 expression level was lower in human osteosarcoma cell lines compared to the normal osteoblast cell line, which showed statistical significance (P < 0.01), and enforced expression of this miRNA might inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma cell lines; In the same year, Qu et al. [16] confirmed Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 mRNA-Binding Protein 1 (IGF2BP1) as a direct target of miR-150, which could suppress cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis in vitro as well as suppressed tumor growth of osteosarcoma in vivo. These findings suggest that miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis may play potential roles in regulating osteosarcoma progression. However, its clinical significance in this malignancy remains unclear.

To address this problem, we firstly detected the expression levels of miR-150, and IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein in 20 osteosarcoma and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses, respectively. Then, the subcellular localization and expression pattern of IGF2BP1 protein were examined by immunohistochemistry using 100 osteosarcoma tissues. Associations of miR-150 and/or IGF2BP1 protein expression with various clinicopathological features and patients’ prognosis were also statistically evaluated.

Materials and Methods

Ethics Statement

The current study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region & the People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Patients and Tissue Samples

The clinical cohorts enrolled in the present study were the same as our previous study [16]. For quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses, 20 fresh osteosarcoma and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were obtained from 20 patients with primary osteosarcomas; For immunohistochemistry, a total of 100 archived paraffin wax embedded osteosarcoma tissue specimens were obtained from 100 patients with primary osteosarcoma who underwent surgical operations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region & the People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region between 2005 and 2009. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the osteosarcoma patients were listed in Table 1. The detailed information of the two clinical cohorts used in the present study was provided in our previous publication [17].
Table 1

Associations of the expression of miR-150 and/or IGF2BP1 protein with various clinicopathological features of patients with osteosarcoma

Clinicopathological features

No. of cases (n, %)

miR-150-low (n, %)

P

IGF2BP1-high (n, %)

P

miR-150-low/ IGF2BP1-high (n, %)

P

Age (years)

 < 18

40 (40.00)

22 (55.00)

NS

20 (50.00)

NS

12 (30.00)

NS

 ≥ 18

60 (60.00)

30 (50.00)

31 (51.67)

20 (33.33)

Sex

 Male

68 (68.00)

34 (50.00)

NS

33 (48.53)

NS

23 (33.82)

NS

 Female

32 (32.00)

18 (56.25)

18 (56.25)

9 (28.13)

Tumor site

 Femur

55 (55.00)

28 (50.91)

NS

28 (50.91)

NS

20 (36.36)

NS

 Tibia

20 (20.00)

10 (50.00)

10 (50.00)

6 (30.00)

 Humeral bone

15 (15.00)

8 (53.33)

8 (53.33)

3 (20.00)

 Other

10 (10.00)

6 (60.00)

5 (50.00)

3 (30.00)

Histologic type

 Osteoblastic

55 (55.00)

28 (50.91)

NS

28 (50.91)

NS

20 (36.36)

NS

 Chondroblastic

20 (20.00)

10 (50.00)

10 (50.00)

6 (30.00)

 Fibroblastic

15 (15.00)

8 (53.33)

8 (53.33)

3 (20.00)

 Telangiectatic

10 (10.00)

6 (60.00)

5 (50.00)

3 (30.00)

Tumor grade

 Low

15 (15.00)

5 (33.33)

0.02

4 (26.67)

0.02

2 (13.33)

0.01

 High

85 (85.00)

47 (55.29)

47 (55.29)

30 (35.29)

Metastasis

 Absent

60 (60.00)

16 (26.67)

0.001

15 (25.00)

0.001

2 (3.33)

<0.001

 Present

40 (40.00)

36 (90.00)

36 (90.00)

30 (75.00)

Recurrence

 Absent

70 (60.00)

26 (37.14)

0.001

25 (35.71)

0.001

7 (10.00)

<0.001

 Present

30 (40.00)

26 (86.67)

26 (86.67)

25 (83.33)

Response to pre-operative chemotherapy

 Good

50 (50.00)

17 (34.00)

0.01

16 (32.00)

0.01

6 (12.00)

0.001

 Poor

50 (50.00)

35 (70.00)

35 (70.00)

26 (52.00)

RNA Extraction & Quantitative Real-Time PCR

The expression levels of miR-150 and IGF2BP1 mRNA in ostoesarcoma and adjacent noncancerous tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR according to the protocol of our previous study [17]. The primer sequences used in this study were listed as follows: for miR-150, Forward Primer 5'- GCT CTC CCA ACC CTT GTA CC - 3', Reverse Primer 5'- CGA GGA AGA AGA CGG AAG AAT - 3'; for U6, Forward Primer 5'- GCT TCG GCA GCA CAT ATA CTA AAA T -3', Reverse Primer 5'- CGC TTC ACG AAT TTG CGT GTC AT -3'; for IGF2BP1, Forward Primer 5'- CAG GAG ATG GTG CAG GTG TTT ATC C - 3', Reverse Primer 5'- GTT TGC CAT AGA TTC TTC CCT GAG C - 3'; for GAPDH, Forward Primer 5'- AAT CCC ATC ACC ATC TTC CA -3', Reverse Primer 5'- TGG ACT CCA CGA CGT ACT CA -3'. The amplification specificity was checked by melting curve analysis. Relative expression of miR-150 and IGF2BP1 mRNA were calculated based on the 2-ΔΔCT method.

Western Blot Analysis

The expression levels of IGF2BP1 protein in osteosarcoma and adjacent noncancerous tissues were detected by Western blot analysis according to the protocol of our previous study [17]. The following primary antibodies were used: IGF2BP1 protein (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, MA, USA; 1:150 dilution) and GAPDH (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, MA, USA; 1:150 dilution).

Immunohistochemistry

Subcellular localization and expression pattern of IGF2BP1 protein in osteosarcoma tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry was performed according to the protocol of our previous study [17]. The following primary antibody was used: IGF2BP1 protein (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, MA, USA; 1:150 dilution).

Evaluation of Immunostaining Results

The immunoreactive scores (IRSs) of IGF2BP1 protein were evaluated by two independent pathologists who were blinded to the clinical information of osteosarcoma patients enrolled in the current study, and calculated by integrating the proportion of positive cells and the intensity of immunoreactivity based on the description of the previous studies [18, 19, 20].

Statistical Analysis

All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package (version 11.0 for Windows, SPSS Inc., IL, USA). Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± S.D.. Differences of miR-150, IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression between osteosarcoma and the corresponding noncancerous bone tissues were evaluated by the paired t test. Correlation between IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression in osteosarcoma was statistically evaluated by Spearman correlation analysis. Associations miR-150 and/or IGF2BP1 expression with various clinicopathological characteristics of osteosarcoma were analyzed by x2 tests. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier and the log-rank tests. P < 0.05 was used to indicate a statistically significant difference.

Results

Downregulation of miR-150, and Upregulation of IGF2BP1 mRNA and Protein in Human Osteosarcoma Tissues

The expression level of miR-150 in osteosarcoma tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (tumor vs. normal: 2.55 ± 0.61 vs. 3.83 ± 0.76, P < 0.001, Fig. 1a), while the expression levels of IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein were both markedly increased in osteosarcoma tissues (for IGF2BP1 mRNA, tumor vs. normal: 4.60 ± 0.93 vs. 2.75 ± 0.62, P < 0.001, Fig. 1b; for IGF2BP1 protein, tumor vs. normal: 2.47 ± 0.43 vs. 1.25 ± 0.36, P < 0.001, Fig. 1c). Importantly, the expression levels of IGF2BP1 mRNA in osteosarcoma tissues were positively correlated with that of IGF2BP1 protein in osteosarcoma tissues (Spearman correlation r = 0.49, P = 0.03, Fig. 1d).
Fig. 1

Downregulation of miR-150, and upregulation of IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein in human osteosarcoma tissues. a Relative expression of miR-150 in osteosarcoma and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues; b Relative expression of IGF2BP1 mRNA in osteosarcoma and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues; c Relative expression of IGF2BP1 protein in osteosarcoma and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues; d Correlation between miR-150 and IGF2BP1 protein expression in osteosarcoma tissues; e Positive immunostaining of IGF2BP1 protein in ostesarcoma tissues and negative control. (×400 magnification)

According to the observation of immunochemistry, the positive immunostaining of IGF2BP1 protein was predominantly localized in cytoplasm of tumor cells in primary osteosarcoma tissues (Fig. 1e). The median values of miR-150 (2.56) and IGF2BP1 protein IRS (5.62) in all 100 osteosarcoma tissues were respectively used as cutoff points to classify the patients with osteosarcomas into miR-150-low (n = 52, 52.00%), miR-150-high (n = 48, 48.00%), IGF2BP1-low (n = 49, 49.00%) and IGF2BP1-high (n = 51, 51.00%) expression groups.

Associations of miR-150 and/or IGF2BP1 Protein with Various Clinicopathological Features of Human Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma patients with miR-150-low expression or IGF2BP1-high expression more frequently had high tumor grade (both P = 0.02), positive metastasis (both P = 0.001) and recurrence (both P = 0.001), and poor response to chemotherapy (both P = 0.01). However, there were no associations of miR-150-low expression or IGF2BP1-high expression with other clinicopathological features of patients with osteosarcomas, including age, sex, tumor site and histological type (Table 1).

Among 100 patients with osteosarcomas, 32 (32.00%), 20 (20.00%), 19 (19.00%) and 29 (29.00%) were respectively in miR-150-low/IGF2BP1-high, miR-150-low/IGF2BP1-low, miR-150-high/IGF2BP1-high, miR-150-high/IGF2BP1-low groups. Moreover, the miR-150-low/IGF2BP1-high expression was significantly associated with high tumor grade (P = 0.01), positive metastasis (P < 0.001) and recurrence (P < 0.001), and poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.001) of patients with osteosarcomas (Table 1).

Associations of miR-150 and/or IGF2BP1 Protein with Patients’ Prognosis in Human Osteosarcoma

Kaplan–Meier and log-rank tests showed that osteosarcoma patients with miR-150-low or IGF2BP1-high expression had shorter overall and disease-free survivals than those with miR-150-high or IGF2BP1-low expression (all P < 0.001, Fig. 2a, b, c and d). More importantly, both overall and disease-free survivals of osteosarcoma patients with miR-150-low/IGF2BP1-high were shortest, compared to miR-150-low/IGF2BP1-low, miR-150-high/IGF2BP1-high, miR-150-high/IGF2BP1-low groups (Fig. 2e, f, respectively; both P < 0.001).
Fig. 2

Kaplan-Meier survival curves for osteosarcoma patients based on miR-150 (a for overall survival; b for disease-free survival), IGF2BP1 protein (c for overall survival; d for disease-free survival) and miR-150/IGF2BP1 protein (c for overall survival; f for disease-free survival) expression

Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that miR-150 expression (for overall survival: RR 7.33, 95%CI, 1.10–15.69, P = 0.01; for disease-free survival: RR 7.92, 95%CI, 1.12–16.83, P = 0.01), IGF2BP1 protein expression (for overall survival: RR 6.62, 95%CI, 0.83–13.02, P = 0.02; for disease-free survival: RR 6.86, 95%CI, 0.92–14.09, P = 0.02), and miR-150/IGF2BP1 expression (for overall survival: RR 8.52, 95%CI, 1.16–18.36, P = 0.001; for disease-free survival: RR 8.89, 95%CI, 1.19–18.98, P = 0.001) were all independent prognostic factors of unfavorable survival in human osteosarcoma (Table 2).
Table 2

Multivariate survival analysis of overall and disease-free survivals in 100 patients with osteosarcomas

Variables

Overall survival

Disease-free survival

Relative risk (RR)

95%CI

P

RR

95%CI

P

Tumor grade

2.42

0.61–5.16

NS

3.37

0.70–7.38

NS

Response to pre-operative chemotherapy

7.28

1.08–15.11

0.01

8.25

1.11–17.99

0.006

Metastasis status

6.44

0.96–13.62

0.02

6.92

1.00–14.06

0.01

Recurrence status

3.26

0.68–7.02

NS

3.59

0.71–7.83

NS

miR-150 expression

7.33

1.10–15.69

0.01

7.92

1.12–16.83

0.01

IGF2BP1 expression

6.62

0.83–13.02

0.02

6.86

0.92–14.09

0.02

miR-150/IGF2BP1 expression

8.52

1.16–18.36

0.001

8.89

1.19–18.98

0.001

Discussion

Growing evidence shows that osteosarcoma may be caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. There is an ongoing necessity to identify candidate markers of diagnosis and prognosis, novel therapeutic targets and signaling pathways which are involved into osteosarcoma progression. In the present hospital-based case study, we investigated the clinical relevance of miR-150 and its target gene IGF2BP1 in human osteosarcoma for the first time. On the basis of our data, altered levels of miR-150 and IGF2BP1, alone or in combination, were all significantly associated with advanced clinicopathological features and short survival of patients with osteosarcomas, implying that the imbalance of miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis may lead to aggressive progression and poor prognosis of this malignancy.

A large number of recent studies have revealed that miRNAs may be potential diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as therapeutic targets for the treatment of various malignant diseases. miR-150, localized on chromosome 19q13, has been identified as a hematopoietic-specific miRNA [21]. In addition to hematological malignancies, miR-150 is implicated in a variety of solid tumors, including glioma [22], osteosarcoma [13, 14, 15, 16], esophageal cancer [23], breast cancer [24], non-small cell lung cancer [25], gastric cancer [26], cholangiocarcinoma [27], hepatocellular carcinoma [28], pancreatic cancer [29], colorectal cancer [30], cervical cancer [31], ovarian cancer [32], and prostate cancer [33]. Functionally, miR-150 may act either as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor by regulating various target genes with a cancer type-dependent manner. For example, miR-150 suppressed colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion via targeting MUC4 [30]; miR-150 inhibited hepatoma cell migration and invasion by regulating MMP14 [28]; miR-150 predicted a favorable prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, as well as inhibited cell invasion and metastasis by suppressing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 [32]. In contrast, miR-150 over-expression promoted growth, clonogenicity and reduces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through regulating the Pro-Apoptotic Purinergic P2X7 Receptor [24]; miR-150 promoted cellular metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer by targeting FOXO4 [25]. Previous studies [13, 14, 15], together with our data here, confirmed that miR-150 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous tissues. In addition, we found that the decreased expression of miR-150 was significantly associated with high tumor grade, presence of metastasis and recurrence, as well as poor response to chemotherapy. We also revealed a novel role of miR-150 in patients’ prognosis in osteosarcoma.

Together with IGF2BP2 and IGF2BP3, IGF2BP1 belongs to a highly conserved protein family-the IGF2BP protein family, and is characterized by the high expression during the period between zygote and embryo stages [34]. It is emerging as a key regulator of mRNA metabolism with a specific role in controlling the localization, translation or turnover of specific mRNA targets [35]. Accumulating studies observed the abnormal expression of IGF2BP1 in various human cancer types, and indicated its oncogenic roles. For example, depletion of IGF2BP1 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of liver cancer cells in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth of murine xenograft in vivo [36]; IGF2BP1 was commonly up-regulated both in human cervical cancer tissues and cell lines, and was identified as a direct target of a tumor suppressive miRNA-miR-140-5p [37]. Especially, IGF2BP1 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the level of miR-150 in osteosarcoma tissues, and the downregulation of endogenous IGF2BP1 exhibited similar effects of overexpression of miR-150 in this malignancy [15]. Consistently, our data here confirmed the decreased expression of IGF2BP1 at both mRNA and protein levels and also shown its cytoplasmic localization in malignant cells of osteosarcoma tissues. Moreover, the significant associations of IGF2BP1 overexpression with advanced clinicopathological characteristics and poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients were also determined. More interestingly, in addition to the clinical implications of the combined miR-150 and IGF2BP1, we also verified that this combination had more significant prognostic value than the two markers alone.

In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-150 and its downstream target IGF2BP1 may be a crucial axis for the development, progression and patients’ prognosis of ostesarcoma. The newly identified miR-150/IGF2BP1 axis might be a novel potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment. Meanwhile, there are still some limitations need further solving: At first, the follow-up time of the clinical cohort used in this study was relatively short, which may lead to some unexpected results, for example, tumor grade was not identified as a prognostic factor in our survival analysis; Secondly, why miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis was dysregulated in osteosarcoma; Thirdly, whether there are other mechanism for the involvement of miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis in osteosarcoma. Exploration of the above questions may improve our understanding of miR-150-IGF2BP1 axis in human osteosarcoma.

Notes

Authors’ Contributions

Lei Wang participated in study design and coordination, material support for obtained funding, and supervised study. Lei Wang & Ailixiati Aireti: performed the experiments and data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. Other authors: carried out a part of data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Fagioli F, Biasin E, Mereuta OM, Muraro M, Luksch R, Ferrari S, Aglietta M, Madon E (2008) Poor prognosis osteosarcoma: new therapeutic approach. Bone Marrow Transplant 41(Suppl 2):S131–S134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bieling P, Rehan N, Winkler P, Helmke K, Maas R, Fuchs N, Bielack S, Heise U, Jurgens H, Treuner J, Romanowski R, Exner U, Kotz R, Winkler K (1996) Tumor size and prognosis in aggressively treated osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol 14:848–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bielack SS, Hecker-Nolting S, Blattmann C, Kager L (2016) Advances in the management of osteosarcoma. F1000Res 5:2767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson ME (2016) Update on Survival in Osteosarcoma. Orthop Clin North Am 47:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Piletič K, Kunej T (2016) MicroRNA epigenetic signatures in human disease. Arch Toxicol 90:2405–2419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rupaimoole R, Slack FJ (2017) MicroRNA therapeutics: towards a new era for the management of cancer and other diseases. Nat Rev Drug Discov 16:203–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shah MY, Ferrajoli A, Sood AK, Lopez-Berestein G, Calin GA (2016) microRNA therapeutics in Cancer-an emerging concept. EBioMedicine 12:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Makarova JA, Shkurnikov MU, Wicklein D, Lange T, Samatov TR, Turchinovich AA, Tonevitsky AG (2016) Intracellular and extracellular microRNA: an update on localization and biological role. Prog Histochem Cytochem 51:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ram Kumar RM, Boro A, Fuchs B (2016) Involvement and clinical aspects of MicroRNA in osteosarcoma. Int J Mol Sci 17:E877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuninty PR, Schnittert J, Storm G, Prakash J (2016) MicroRNA targeting to modulate tumor microenvironment. Front Oncol 6:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vasilatou D, Papageorgiou S, Pappa V, Papageorgiou E, Dervenoulas J (2010) The role of microRNAs in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Eur J Haematol 84:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang F, Ren X, Zhang X (2015) Role of microRNA-150 in solid tumors. Oncol Lett 10:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li X, Chen L, Wang W, Meng FB, Zhao RT, Chen Y (2015) MicroRNA-150 inhibits cell invasion and migration and is downregulated in human osteosarcoma. Cytogenet Genome Res 146:124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhan C, Li C, Zhang H, Tang H, Ji F, Qiao SC, Xu WD, Wang ZW (2016) MicroRNA-150 upregulation reduces osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating Ezrin. Oncol Lett 12:3457–3462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang L, Wang W, Li J, Chen S, Zhan R (2016) MicroRNA-150 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation by targeting RUNX2 gene. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 41:1285–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qu Y, Pan S, Kang M, Dong R, Zhao J (2016) MicroRNA-150 functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma by targeting IGF2BP1. Tumour Biol 37:5275–5284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ning K, Zhang H, Wang Z, Li K (2017) Prognostic implications of Kindlin proteins in human osteosarcoma. Onco Targets Ther 10:657–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhao J, Xu H, He M, Wu Y (2014) Glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1 expression and osteosarcoma prognosis. Tumour Biol 35:12449–12458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liao Y, Feng Y, Shen J, Gao Y, Cote G, Choy E, Harmon D, Mankin H, Hornicek F, Duan Z (2016) Clinical and biological significance of PIM1 kinase in osteosarcoma. J Orthop Res 34:1185–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abd El-Rehim DM, Osman NA (2015) Expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 and endostatin in human osteosarcoma: implication in tumor progression and prognosis. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 27:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Watanabe A, Tagawa H, Yamashita J, Teshima K, Nara M, Iwamoto K, Kume M, Kameoka Y, Takahashi N, Nakagawa T, Shimizu N, Sawada K (2011) The role of microRNA-150 as a tumor suppressor in malignant lymphoma. Leukemia 25:1324–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sakr M, Takino T, Sabit H, Nakada M, Li Z, Sato H (2016) miR-150-5p and miR-133a suppress glioma cell proliferation and migration through targeting membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase. Gene 587:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang X, Ren Y, Wang Z, Xiong X, Han S, Pan W, Chen H, Zhou L, Zhou C, Yuan Q, Yang M (2015) Down-regulation of 5S rRNA by miR-150 and miR-383 enhances c-Myc-rpL11 interaction and inhibits proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. FEBS Lett 589(24 Pt B):3989–3997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang S, Chen Y, Wu W, Ouyang N, Chen J, Li H, Liu X, Su F, Lin L, Yao Y (2013) miR-150 promotes human breast cancer growth and malignant behavior by targeting the pro-apoptotic purinergic P2X7 receptor. PLoS One 8:e80707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li H, Ouyang R, Wang Z, Zhou W, Chen H, Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Li H, Liao M, Wang W, Ye M, Ding Z, Feng X, Liu J, Zhang B (2016) MiR-150 promotes cellular metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer by targeting FOXO4. Sci Rep 6:39001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu Q, Jin H, Yang Z, Luo G, Lu Y, Li K, Ren G, Su T, Pan Y, Feng B, Xue Z, Wang X, Fan D (2010) MiR-150 promotes gastric cancer proliferation by negatively regulating the pro-apoptotic gene EGR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 392:340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang S, Yin J, Li T, Yuan L, Wang D, He J, Du X, Lu J (2015) Upregulated circulating miR-150 is associated with the risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Oncol Rep 33:819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li T, Xie J, Shen C, Cheng D, Shi Y, Wu Z, Zhan Q, Deng X, Chen H, Shen B, Peng C, Li H, Zhu Z (2014) miR-150-5p inhibits hepatoma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMP14. PLoS One 9:e115577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang K, He M, Cai Z, Ni C, Deng J, Ta N, Xu J, Zheng J (2015) A decrease in miR-150 regulates the malignancy of pancreatic cancer by targeting c-Myb and MUC4. Pancreas 44:370–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aherne ST, Madden SF, Hughes DJ, Pardini B, Naccarati A, Levy M, Vodicka P, Neary P, Dowling P, Clynes M (2015) Circulating miRNAs miR-34a and miR-150 associated with colorectal cancer progression. BMC Cancer 15:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li J, Hu L, Tian C, Lu F, Wu J, Liu L (2015) microRNA-150 promotes cervical cancer cell growth and survival by targeting FOXO4. BMC Mol Biol 16:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wuerkenbieke D, Wang J, Li Y, Ma C (2015) miRNA-150 downregulation promotes pertuzumab resistance in ovarian cancer cells via AKT activation. Arch Gynecol Obstet 292:1109–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu DZ, Zhang HY, Long XL, Zou SL, Zhang XY, Han GY, Cui ZG (2015) MIR-150 promotes prostate cancer stem cell development via suppressing p27Kip1. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 19:4344–4352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yisraeli JK (2005) VICKZ proteins: a multi-talented family of regulatory RNA-binding proteins. Biol Cell 97:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yaniv K, Yisraeli JK (2002) The involvement of a conserved family of RNA binding proteins in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. Gene 287:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gutschner T, Hämmerle M, Pazaitis N, Bley N, Fiskin E, Uckelmann H, Heim A, Groβ M, Hofmann N, Geffers R, Skawran B, Longerich T, Breuhahn K, Schirmacher P, Mühleck B, Hüttelmaier S, Diederichs S (2014) Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is an important protumorigenic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 59:1900–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Su Y, Xiong J, Hu J, Wei X, Zhang X, Rao L (2016) MicroRNA-140-5p targets insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) to suppress cervical cancer growth and metastasis. Oncotarget 7:68397–68411PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Wang
    • 1
  • Ailixiati Aireti
    • 1
  • Aizezi Aihaiti
    • 1
  • Kun Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedics Center Spine SurgeryPeople’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionUrumqiChina

Personalised recommendations