Enhanced Tumoral MLH1-Expression in MLH1-/PMS2-Deficient Colon Cancer Is Indicative of Sporadic Colon Cancer and Not HNPCC
Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) is caused by germline mutations of mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal carcinomas might be HNPCC-associated but also caused by MLH1-promoter methylation in sporadic colon carcinoma. This study analyzed semiquantitatively whether the MLH1 staining pattern might be indicative of sporadic or HNPCC-associated colorectal cancer. Using a semiquantitative score ranging from 0 (negative) to 12 (maximum immunopositivity) we analyzed MLH1 expression patterns in 130 MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal cancers. The collective consisted of 70 HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and 60 sporadic colon cancers. In tumor cells of 70 HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers, 64 cases (91.43%) showed no MLH1 staining, 5 cases weak (7.14%) and 1 case (1.43%) stronger staining intensity. In contrast, in tumor cells of 60 sporadic colorectal cancers 45 cases (75.0%) showed no MLH1 staining, 10 cases weak (16.67%) and 5 cases (8.33%) stronger staining intensity to a varying extent. In immunopositive cases, MLH1 showed a characteristic dot-like nuclear staining pattern in the tumor cells. We compared cases with absent to weak MLH1-staining (immunoscores 0 to 2) to cases with elevated immunoscores (3 to 12) detecting a statistically significant difference between HNPCC-associated and sporadic colon cancers (p value = 0.0031, Fisher’s exact test). Taken together, enhanced tumoral MLH1 expression in MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal carcinomas seems to be indicative of sporadic origin. In contrast, HNPCC-associated colorectal cancer showed absent or very weak MLH1 immunopositivity. Therefore, this semiquantitative and easy to exert MLH1 immunoscore might help to identify sporadic MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal cancer cases prior to time-consuming methylation analysis.
KeywordsColorectal cancer HNPCC Lynch syndrome MLH1 Mismatch repair enzymes
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
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