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Pathology & Oncology Research

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 527–534 | Cite as

The Role of the Mediators of Inflammation in Cancer Development

  • José Veríssimo Fernandes
  • Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci
  • Carlos André Nunes Jatobá
  • Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes
  • Judson Welber Veríssimo de Azevedo
  • Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo
Review

Abstract

Epigenetic disorders such as point mutations in cellular tumor suppressor genes, DNA methylation and post-translational modifications are needed to transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. These events result in alterations in critical pathways responsible for maintaining the normal cellular homeostasis, triggering to an inflammatory response which can lead the development of cancer. The inflammatory response is a universal defense mechanism activated in response to an injury tissue, of any nature, that involves both innate and adaptive immune responses, through the collective action of a variety of soluble mediators. Many inflammatory signaling pathways are activated in several types of cancer, linking chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis process. Thus, Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, growth, invasion, and metastasis, affecting also the immune surveillance. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. A range of inflammation mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, free radicals, prostaglandins, growth and transcription factors, microRNAs, and enzymes as, cyclooxygenase and matrix metalloproteinase, collectively acts to create a favorable microenvironment for the development of tumors. In this review are presented the main mediators of the inflammatory response and discussed the likely mechanisms through which, they interact with each other to create a condition favorable to development of cancer.

Keywords

Inflammation and cancer Inflammation mediators Mechanisms of tumorigenesis 

Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid

AP-1

Activator protein 1

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

cAMP

Cyclic AMP

CCL

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand

CD

Cluster of differentiation

cHL

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma

CLRs

C-type lectin receptors

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CXC

Chemokine receptors

DAMPs

Damage-associated molecular patterns

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EMT

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition

FOXP3

Forkhead box P3

GPCRs

G protein-coupled

HPV

Human papillomavirus

ICC

Invasive cervical cancer

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

MM

Multiple myeloma

MMPs

Enzymes matrix metalloproteinase matrix

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NK

Natural killer cell

NLRs

NOD-like receptors

NO

Nitric oxide

NSAIDs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

p53

Tumor protein p53

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PGs

Prostaglandins

PRRs

Pattern recognition receptors

PTGER

Prostaglandin receptor

PTGES

Terminal prostaglandin synthase enzyme

PubMed

US National Library of Medicine

RLRs

RIG-like receptors

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

TCR

T Cell Receptor

TGF

Transforming growth factor

Th cells

T helper cells

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Tregs

Regulatory T cells

Txs

Thromboxanes

Notes

Conflict of Interest

All authors state that there are no conflicts of interest to be declared. No financial support was requested or received in the production of this paper.

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Copyright information

© Arányi Lajos Foundation 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Veríssimo Fernandes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci
    • 3
  • Carlos André Nunes Jatobá
    • 4
  • Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes
    • 5
  • Judson Welber Veríssimo de Azevedo
    • 6
  • Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Post-Graduate Program in Biological SciencesFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ParasitologyFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  3. 3.Maternidade Escola Januário CiccoFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  4. 4.Department of PathologyFederal University of Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Rio Grande do Norte StateMossoróBrazil
  6. 6.Hospital UniversitárioFederal University of Triângulo MineiroMina GeraisBrazil

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