Pathology & Oncology Research

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 287–296 | Cite as

Chemopreventive Efficacy of Naringenin-Loaded Nanoparticles in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis

  • Nechikkad Sulfikkarali
  • Narendran Krishnakumar
  • Shanmugam Manoharan
  • Ramadas Madhavan Nirmal


Nanochemoprevention has been introduced recently as a novel approach for improving phytochemicals bioavailability and anti-tumor effect. The present study is designed to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) against 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by evaluating the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and immunoexpression patterns of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 proteins. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) investigations have confirmed a narrow size distribution of the prepared nanoparticles (40–90 nm) with ~88 % encapsulation efficiency. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5 % DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA painted animals revealed the morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and immunoexpression of PCNA and p53 were significantly altered during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral administration of NARNPs (50 mg NAR/kg body weight/day) to DMBA-treated animals completely prevented the tumor formation as compared to the free NAR and significantly reduced the degree of histological lesions, in addition to restoration of the status of biochemical and molecular markers during oral carcinogenesis. In addition, NARNPs have more potent anti-lipid peroxidative, antiproliferative effect and antioxidant potentials compared to free NAR in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the present study suggests that NARNPs could be a potentially useful drug carrier system for targeted delivery of naringenin for cancer chemoprevention.


Nanochemoprevention DMBA Hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis Naringenin 



The authors are thankful to the authorities of Annamalai University, for providing all necessary facilities to carry out the present study successfully. They also thank the anonymous referees, who significantly contributed to improving the contents of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest concerning this article.


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Copyright information

© Arányi Lajos Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nechikkad Sulfikkarali
    • 1
  • Narendran Krishnakumar
    • 1
  • Shanmugam Manoharan
    • 2
  • Ramadas Madhavan Nirmal
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College & HospitalAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia

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