Pathology & Oncology Research

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 579–584 | Cite as

Subacute Toxicity Assessment of Water Disinfection Byproducts on Zebrafish

  • Gergely Rácz
  • Zsolt Csenki
  • Róbert Kovács
  • Árpád Hegyi
  • Ferenc Baska
  • László Sujbert
  • Ivett Zsákovics
  • Renáta Kis
  • Ryan Gustafson
  • Béla Urbányi
  • Béla Szende


Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.


4-ethylbenzaldehyde 2,4-difluoroaniline Zebrafish Water disinfection byproducts 







Disinfection byproduct


Air saturation volume



This work was funded by the Center of Excellence in Environmental Industry at Szent István University (RET-12/2005), the Baross Program (BAROSS-HALDEC 09), by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA NNF 78834), and by the National Office for Research and Technology of Hungary.


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Copyright information

© Arányi Lajos Foundation 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gergely Rácz
    • 1
  • Zsolt Csenki
    • 2
  • Róbert Kovács
    • 2
  • Árpád Hegyi
    • 2
  • Ferenc Baska
    • 3
  • László Sujbert
    • 4
  • Ivett Zsákovics
    • 5
  • Renáta Kis
    • 5
  • Ryan Gustafson
    • 6
  • Béla Urbányi
    • 2
  • Béla Szende
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer ResearchSemmelweis University BudapestBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Fish Culture, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesSzent István UniversityGödöllőHungary
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSzent István UniversityBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Institute of HygieneSemmelweis University BudapestBudapestHungary
  5. 5.3D HISTECH KftBudapestHungary
  6. 6.Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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