Identification of a Novel Universal Potential Epitope on the Cytoplasmic Tail of H7N9 Virus Hemagglutinin
H7N9 is a recently identified subtype of influenza A virus that caused a major outbreak in humans in China in 2013. According to the latest data provided by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.moh.gov.cn/zwgk/yqbb3/ejlist.shtml, updated on October 31, 2018), the mortality rate of H7N9 infections in China amounts to 39.7% (611/1536). Thus, H7N9 poses a serious public health threat.
Influenza A viruses comprise a group of antigenically diverse pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in both animal and human populations (Thornburg et al.2016). Subtypes of influenza A viruses are characterized by their surface glycoproteins, including hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). HA consists of a globular head region with a receptor-binding pocket and a conserved stem motif (Liu et al.2016), and mediates the binding of influenza A virus to host cells (Melikyan et al.1999). After binding, HA can be divided into three domains: an...
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (#31500719 (Zheng Yang) and #81672027 (Boping Zhou)), the Science and Technology Grant of Shenzhen (#JCYJ20160427151500192 (Jing Yuan), #JCYJ20150402111430643 (Zheng Yang), and #JSGG20140701164558078 (Boping Zhou)), the Science and Technology Project of Zhuhai (#20161027E030031 (Xi Liu)) and the Medical Science and Technology Research Fund of Guangdong (#A2017037 (Xi Liu)).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal and Human Rights Statement
The study was approved by the ethics committees of Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital. All participants provided written informed consent. Written consents were obtained from all patients or their authorizers involved in the study.
- Dreyfus C, Laursen NS, Kwaks T, Zuijdgeest D, Khayat R, Ekiert DC, Lee JH, Metlagel Z, Bujny MV, Jongeneelen M, van der Vlugt R, Lamrani M, Korse HJ, Geelen E, Sahin Ö, Sieuwerts M, Brakenhoff JP, Vogels R, Li OT, Poon LL, Peiris M, Koudstaal W, Ward AB, Wilson IA, Goudsmit J, Friesen RH (2012) Highly conserved protective epitopes on influenza B viruses. Science 337:1343–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Siche S, Brett K, Moller L, Kordyukova LV, Mintaev RR, Alexeevski AV, Veit M (2015) Two cytoplasmic acylation sites and an adjacent hydrophobic residue, but no other conserved amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail of ha from influenza A virus are crucial for virus replication. Viruses 7:6458–6475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thornburg NJ, Zhang H, Bangaru S, Sapparapu G, Kose N, Lampley RM, Bombardi RG, Yu Y, Graham S, Branchizio A, Yoder SM, Rock MT, Creech CB, Edwards KM, Lee D, Li S, Wilson IA, García-Sastre A, Albrecht RA, Crowe JE Jr (2016) H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations. J Clin Invest 126:1482–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Whittle JR, Zhang R, Khurana S, King LR, Manischewitz J, Golding H, Dormitzer PR, Haynes BF, Walter EB, Moody MA, Kepler TB, Liao HX, Harrison SC (2011) Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:14216–14221CrossRefGoogle Scholar