Virologica Sinica

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 373–377 | Cite as

Molecular Epidemiology of Porcine Circovirus Type 3 Infection in Swine Herds in China

  • Xiangdong Li
  • Chaolin Zhang
  • Mingming Qiao
  • Jiangsong Guo
  • Guangyuan Xing
  • Chunxia Jin
  • Juan Wang
  • Ming Sun
  • Kegong Tian

Dear Editor,

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a new-emerging circovirus belonging to the genus Circovirus in the family Circoviridae in which PCV type 1 (PCV1) and PCV type 2 (PCV2) were well documented (Palinski et al.2017). PCV1 is a cell culture-derived virus and is considered to be nonpathogenic for swine, whereas PCV2 is the primary etiological agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) that causes severe economic losses in the swine industry worldwide (Zhai et al.2014). PCV3 was firstly reported in the United States of America in 2016 (Palinski et al.2017). After that, PCV3 has been detected in Poland, South Korea, Italy, Brazil, United Kingdom, and China, and was reported to be associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, congenital tremors, reproductive failure, and multi-systemic inflammation (Kwon et al.2017; Li and Tian 2017; Palinski et al.2017; Stadejek et al.2017; Zheng et al.2017). The first case of PCV3 in China was reported in Guangdong...



This work was supported by grant from National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0500703), Major science and technology projects in Henan Province (171100110200), and Luoyang HeLuo Talent Plan (to Dr. Kegong Tian).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

This study was approved by the Animal Care and Ethics Committee of National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine with IACUC Number 2018054.


  1. Fan S, Ku X, Chen F, Wang Y, Yu X, He Q (2017) Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 3 strain, PCV3/CN/Hubei-618/2016, isolated from China. Genome Announc 5(pii):e00100–e00117PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Fu X, Fang B, Ma J, Liu Y, Bu D, Zhou P, Wang H, Jia K, Zhang G (2017) Insights into the epidemic characteristics and evolutionary history of the novel porcine circovirus type 3 in southern China. Transb Emerg Dis 65:e296–e303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kwon T, Yoo SJ, Park CK, Lyoo YS (2017) Prevalence of novel porcine circovirus 3 in Korean pig populations. Vet Microbiol 207:178–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Li X, Tian K (2017) Porcine circovirus type 3: a threat to the pig industry? Vet Rec 181:659–660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Li X, Galliher-Beckley A, Huang H, Sun X, Shi J (2013) Peptide nanofiber hydrogel adjuvanted live virus vaccine enhances cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vaccine 31:4508–4515CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Li X, Galliher-Beckley A, Pappan L, Trible B, Kerrigan M, Beck A, Hesse R, Blecha F, Nietfeld JC, Rowland RR, Shi J (2014) Comparison of host immune responses to homologous and heterologous type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenge in vaccinated and unvaccinated pigs. Biomed Res Int 2014:416727PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Li Y, Yan S, Li X, Yang Q, Guo L, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Tan F, Tian K (2017) From mouse to pig: is PRV vaccine safe across two species? Virus Res 236:44–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lv C, Yang Q, Gao X, Yao Y, Li X, Xiao Y, Tian K (2016) Complete genome sequence of a classical swine fever virus isolate belonging to new subgenotype 21d from Henan Province, Central China. Genome Announc 4(pii):e00093–e00116PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Palinski R, Pineyro P, Shang P, Yuan F, Guo R, Fang Y, Byers E, Hause BM (2017) A novel porcine circovirus distantly related to known circoviruses is associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure. J Virol 91(pii):e01879–e01916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Phan TG, Giannitti F, Rossow S, Marthaler D, Knutson TP, Li L, Deng X, Resende T, Vannucci F, Delwart E (2016) Detection of a novel circovirus PCV3 in pigs with cardiac and multi-systemic inflammation. Virol J 13:184CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Shen H, Liu X, Zhang P, Wang L, Liu Y, Zhang L, Liang P, Song C (2017) Genome characterization of a porcine circovirus type 3 in South China. Transbound Emerg Dis 65:264–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Stadejek T, Wozniak A, Milek D, Biernacka K (2017) First detection of porcine circovirus type 3 on commercial pig farms in Poland. Transbound Emerg Dis 64:1350–1353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Zhai SL, Chen SN, Xu ZH, Tang MH, Wang FG, Li XJ, Sun BB, Deng SF, Hu J, Lv DH, Wen XH, Yuan J, Luo ML, Wei WK (2014) Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: an update on and insights to its prevalence and control. Virol J 11:88CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Zheng S, Wu X, Zhang L, Xin C, Liu Y, Shi J, Peng Z, Xu S, Fu F, Yu J, Sun W, Li J, Wang J (2017) The occurrence of porcine circovirus 3 without clinical infection signs in Shandong Province. Transbound Emerg Dis 64:1337–1341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineHenan Agricultural UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.National Research Center for Veterinary MedicineHigh-Tech District, LuoyangChina
  3. 3.Beijing Anheal Laboratories Co., Ltd.BeijingChina
  4. 4.Pulike Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.LuoyangChina
  5. 5.Sino Science Gene Technology Co., Ltd.LuoyangChina

Personalised recommendations